LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE

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LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE
(Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi)

LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE (Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi)

The Southern California island habitat of this small, black-masked bird that uses its hooked beak to kill insects, mice, lizards and birds was so degraded by non-native sheep, pigs and goats on San Clemente Island that by the time it was protected as endangered in 1977 only about 50 birds remained. Following efforts by the U.S. Navy, which controls San Clemente Island, to remove non-native predators, and a reintroduction program, the shrike’s population grew to 136 individuals by 2013.

There are distinct populations of Island Loggerhead Shrikes. The Island Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi) is a small predatory bird that hunts from perches. It focuses on a wide variety of prey items from arthropods up to small mammals and even other birds. Shrikes have an interesting habit of impaling their prey items on sharp objects such as spines on vegetation or barbed wire. The island subspecies is endemic to the Channel Islands and is a state Species of Special Concern.


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ANACAPA ISLAND
ISLAND COLLECTOR INSTITUTION DATE NUMBER SPECIMEN
Anacapa Island J. C. Von Bloeker LACM August 22, 1940 LACM-19779 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds


SAN CLEMENTE ISLAND
Santa Clemente Island Shrike
Santa Clemente Island Shrike nest, 1991


1897 San Clemente Island:Lanius ludovicianus gambeli—California Shrike. This bird was without question the shyest and hardest to be secured of any on the island. Indeed it was as shy as any hawk I ever saw. It was tolerably common: that is, two or three could be generally seen during an hour's walk. There was a pair in the neighborhood of the windmill where we were camping, and nearly every morning a little after daybreak the male would perch either on the windmill or on the topmost twig of a brush pile on the opposite side of the ravine, and utter its defiant shrike notes. The rustle of the tent door or the click of a gun lock, however, was sufficient to send him up over the ridge, not to appear again for hours. On April 2, I found a nest and succeeded, after lying in ambush for a long time, in securing the female bird. The nest was in a small bush growing out from the side of a canon, and was composed mostly of sheep wool, with an admixture of weed stems and grasses. Five slightly incubated eggs constituted the set. They are not different from eggs of true L. l. gambeli of the mainland, and measure [measurements given]. During our last visit, Mr. Horace Gaylord secured another adult female and a juvenile, and I took another juvenile, making four specimens in all obtained. This shrike is not exactly referable to L. l. gambeli, but appears to be nearer that than either of the U.S. forms...The party consisted of Joseph Grinnell, who had immediate charge of the expedition, and gave special attention to the ornithology and entomology of the islands; Horace Gaylord, who collected mammals; and Harry Gaylord and James Brittan [Britton] who devoted their time to archaeology. The party left San Pedro harbor May 11 in a large fishing schooner... [returning June 9, 1897]”
Grinnell, Joseph The Islands of Santa Barbara, San Nicolas and San Clemente, in the Spring of 1897 Pasadena Academy of Sciences Publication No. 1, August, 1897 (26 pages).


1907 San Clemente Island:Lanius mearnsi. San Clemente Shrike. Fairly well distributed over the whole Island but extremely shy. March 7 I secured a female with nest and five eggs, incubation two-thirds. This nest is typical of the species; composed of dry twigs and weed stems, thickly lined with rootlets and wool and well concealed in the thick branches of a holly bush in a ravine near the northwest coast. Another nest was found March 8 near the coast midway of the Island, containing one downy young and two infertile eggs. Near Mosquito Harbor, March 19, I secured a female and five fresh eggs. The males were extremely shy, giving the alarm from their lookout perches and leaving the vicinity of the nests immediately upon sighting the intruder. The three nests measure in inches as follows:

Outside depth, 4.50, 3.25, 3.
Outside diameter, 9, 7.80, 7.50.
Cavities depth, 2.20, 2.10, 2.
Cavities diameter, 3.25, 3.20, 3.50.”
[“Visits were made to Clemente in January, February, March, April and October, 1907.”]
Linton, C. B. Notes from San Clemente Island The Condor 10:82-86, March 1908


“The San Clemente Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus mearnsii), listed as a federal and state endangered species and endemic to San Clemente Island (SCI} off the southern California coast, numbered only about 20 individuals in 1992. Consistently low abundance since the early 1980s has been attributed to loss of nesting habitat because of browsing by feral animals, aggravated by predation on eggs and young by native and exotic predators. To prevent extinction of the subspecies. a multifaceted recovery plan was initiated by the U.S. Navy that includes state, federal, and private cooperators. This paper describes the recovery plan, including: (1) removal of feral herbivores; (2) reduction of predators; (3) initiation of a captive flock; and (4) development of artificial reproductive enhancement, including double-clutching and hand-rearing and releasing of young. To date, shrike nesting habitat is recovering; predators have been reduced around nest sites; captive birds have bred; and wild, island birds have been induced to double clutch.”


ISLAND COLLECTOR INSTITUTION DATE NUMBER SPECIMEN
San Clemente Island Edgar A. Mearns NMNH August 27, 1894 USNM-134781 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Eggs
San Clemente Island Joseph Grinnell MVZ April 2, 1897 MVZ-195 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Eggs
San Clemente Island Joseph Grinnell MVZ April 2, 1897 MVZ-36969 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island Joseph Grinnell MVZ May 31, 1897 MVZ-36970 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island C. B. Linton WFVZ March 19, 1907 WFVZ-6966 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
San Clemente Island C. B. Linton MCZ August 26, 1908 MCZ-151350 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
San Clemente Island H. W. Wright CAS August 27, 1908 CAS-79048 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island C. B. Linton MCZ November 14, 1908 MCZ-316947 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
San Clemente Island C. B. Linton WFVZ November 24, 1908 WFVZ-6966 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
San Clemente Island C. B. Linton MCZ November 25, 1908 MCZ-316946 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
San Clemente Island H. W. Wright CAS April 22, 1909 CAS-79047 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island H. W. Wright CAS April 22, 1909 CAS-79049 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island H. W. Wright CAS April 22, 1909 CAS-79050 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island H. W. Wright CAS April 22, 1909 CAS-79051 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island A. B. Howell UCLA March 23, 1915 UCLA-9584 Lanius ludovivianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island A. B. Howell UCLA March 23, 1915 UCLA-9585 Lanius ludovivianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island A. B. Howell UCLA March 24, 1915 UCLA-9593 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island A. B. Howell UCLA March 24, 1915 UCLA-9594 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island A. B. Howell UCLA March 24, 1915 UCLA-9595 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island L. M. Huey SDNHM March 24, 1915 SDNHM-33117 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island L. M. Huey UCLA March 26, 1915 UCLA-377 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island L. M. Huey UCLA March 26, 1915 UCLA-378 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island A. B. Howell UCLA March 29, 1915 UCLA-395 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island A. B. Howell UCLA March 29, 1915 UCLA-9633 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island A. B. Howell UCLA March 29, 1915 UCLA-9634 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island A. B. Howell UCLA April 5, 1915 UCLA-9674 Lanius ludovicianus Birds
San Clemente Island L. M. Huey UCLA April 5, 1915 UCLA-415 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island L. M. Huey UCLA April 5, 1915 UCLA-416 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island A. B. Howell UCLA April 6, 1915 UCLA-9676 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island L. M. Huey WFVZ April 6, 1915 WFVZ-64981 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
San Clemente Island L. M. Huey UCLA April 7, 1915 UCLA-424 Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi Birds
San Clemente Island L. M. Huey WFVZ April 10, 1915 WFVZ-93663 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs


SANTA BARBARA ISLAND
ISLAND COLLECTOR INSTITUTION DATE NUMBER SPECIMEN
Santa Barbara Island (unlisted) AMNH May 27, 1914 AMNH-378654 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Barbara Island (unlisted) AMNH May 27, 1914 AMNH-378655 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds



SANTA CATALINA ISLAND

1905-1906 Santa Catalina Island:Lanius sp? About half a dozen shrikes were seen on the golf links back of Avalon. In 1905 three fully fledged juveniles being fed by their parents, were noted. The status of the Catalina shrike has not been determined.” [“These notes are the result of two brief sojourns on Santa Catalina Island in the month of April, eight days being spent in 1905, and five in 1906. Fortunately both trips were made after wet seasons; the hills were carpeted with grass, flowers and insects were abundant.”]
Richardson, Charles H., Jr. Spring Notes from Santa Catalina Island The Condor 10(2):65-68, March 1908


ISLAND COLLECTOR INSTITUTION DATE NUMBER SPECIMEN
Santa Catalina Island Joseph Grinnell MVZ December 25, 1897 MVZ-36971 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Catalina Island H. W. Wright CAS February 3, 1908 CAS-79046 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Catalina Island H. W. Wright MVZ February 3, 1908 MVZ-29060 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Catalina Island P. I. Osburn MCZ February 15, 1910 MCZ-318595 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Catalina Island T. Burke POM May 11, 1910 POM-16057 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
Santa Catalina Island G. K. Snyder WFVZ April 28, 1912 WFVZ-93638 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
Santa Catalina Island H. A. Edwards MVZ April 3, 1918 MVZ-6655 Lanius ludovicianus gambeli Eggs
Santa Catalina Island Kenneth E. Stager UMMZ December 22, 1938 UMMZ-162960 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds


SANTA CRUZ ISLAND

1898 Santa Cruz Island: “...and two pairs of Shrikes, one of which was building, while the other was already occupying a nest. This latter was inaccessible in a tall slim gum sapling and the bird would always slip off and disappear among the trees before more than a glimpse of it could be had. This Shrike has been separated by Mearns and stands in the list as Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi, Island Shrike, the type being taken from the Santa Cruz Island... The main ranch... Shrikes were numerous in this vicinity and contrary to the evidence given in the July Auk, were not really wild. A few were lost by my not using a sufficiently heavy charge in my desire to preserve the plumage as intact as possible, but many of the specimens fell into the large piles of dead brush which they frequented extensively. On one of these brush piles three were bowled over at one shot and not one recovered. This pile was about six feet high and thirty feet across, the birds being in the center when fired at. While trying to find them, a nest of seven eggs was discovered and taken, but the birds had slipped down irretrievably. They must have been having some sort of a row over this nest when shot. Another nest containing six eggs of this species was taken and one or two found which were not completed when I left... Following is a list of birds observed during my stay:- Island Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi);...”
Mailliard, Jos., Spring Notes on the Birds of Santa Cruz Island, Cal., April,1898 The Condor 1(1):41-45, April 1899


1907 Santa Cruz Island:Lanius anthonyi. Island Shrike. Fairly well distributed over the whole island. 16 specimens in all, preserved.” [“At 11:30 p.m., November 19, 1907, my father (H. Linton), Mr. George Willett, and myself left San Pedro harbor in a dilapidated fishing smack and in company with a crawfisherman, one “Cold-foot” Jorgensen. We arrived off the south end of Santa Cruz Island at 10:30 the following day during a stiff norwester. For various reasons we were unable to make camp until the 22nd. It may not be amiss to state here that twice during the blow we were nearly wrecked: once while at anchor in Potatoe Harbor, a broken anchor allowing the boat to drift within the breaker line and nearly onto the rocks. In this instance the timely arrival of Willett and H. Linton in a small boat, saved the day, and incidentally the fishing smack. At another time (the engine having broken down) we were blown nearly onto the rocks of Anacapa Island; but with father at the wheel and Willett and I on the “sheet” we managed to hold her off. I mention the foregoing, and the many sleepless nights spent on the rocky shores, “running” the surf several times each day (with attendant duckings), etc., merely as a warning to those who seem inclined to believe a field naturalist’s life “strewn with roses”. (Its ’ generally strewn with cacti!)”]
Linton, C. B. Notes from Santa Cruz Island] The Condor 10(3):124-129, May 1908

ISLAND COLLECTOR INSTITUTION DATE NUMBER SPECIMEN
Santa Cruz Island H. W. Henshaw USNM June 10, 1875 USNM-72077 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Cruz Island R. H. Beck CMNH May 6, 1897 Lanius ludovicianus Birds
Santa Cruz Island R. H. Beck AMNH May 10, 1897 AMNH-502766 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Cruz Island R. H. Beck AMNH May 11, 1897 AMNH-502765 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Cruz Island F. T. Truesdale SBMNH March 27, 1916 SBMNH-26138 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
Santa Cruz Island F. T. Truesdale SBMNH March 27, 1916 SBMNH-26139 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
Santa Cruz Island A. G. Vrooman SBMNH March 30, 1916 SBMNH-26140 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
Santa Cruz Island M. C. Badger DMNS April 8, 1919 DMNS-6050 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
Santa Cruz Island M. C. Badger WFVZ April 8, 1919 WFVZ-91936 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
Santa Cruz Island W. L. Dawson SBMNH April 8, 1919 SBMNH-26141 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
Santa Cruz Island M. C. Badger UCLA April 9, 1919 UCLA-7241 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Cruz Island M. C. Badger UCLA April 9, 1919 UCLA-7242 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Cruz Island M. C. Badger UCLA April 9, 1919 UCLA-7243 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Cruz Island R. H. Canterbury SBMNH April 8, 1919 SBMNH-26142 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
Santa Cruz Island R. H. Canterbury SBMNH April 18, 1919 SBMNH-26143 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
Santa Cruz Island R. H. Canterbury WFVZ April 19, 1919 WFVZ-144777 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
Santa Cruz Island Alden H. Miller MVZ August 20, 1922 MVZ-81451 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Cruz Island H. H. Sheldon DMNS April 11, 1931 DMNS-6016 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
Santa Cruz Island H. H. Sheldon MVZ April 11, 1931 MVZ-58412 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Cruz Island H. H. Sheldon MVZ April 11, 1931 MVZ-58413 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Cruz Island J. Travers SBMNH April 4, 1932 SBMNH-58413 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
Santa Cruz Island F. A. Pitelka MVZ September 12, 1948 MVZ-116016 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds


SANTA ROSA ISLAND
ISLAND COLLECTOR INSTITUTION DATE NUMBER SPECIMEN
Santa Rosa Island D. S. DeGroot WFVZ April 4, 1927 WFVZ-93661 Lanius ludovicianus Eggs
Santa Rosa Island Clark P. Streator NMNH July 2, 1892 USNM-137893 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Rosa Island Kenneth E. Stager UMMZ November 24, 1939 UMMZ-162958 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Rosa Island Kenneth E. Stager UMMZ November 24, 1939 UMMZ-162959 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Rosa Island Kenneth E. Stager UMMZ November 25, 1939 UMMZ-162957 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Rosa Island O. A. Willett LCCM December 8, 1941 LACM-20104 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Rosa Island O. A. Willett LCCM December 8, 1941 LACM-20105 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Rosa Island O. A. Willett LCCM December 12, 1941 LACM-20108 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Rosa Island A. H. Miller MVZ March 9, 1950 MVZ-120163 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Rosa Island A. H. Miller MVZ March 9, 1950 MVZ-120164 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Rosa Island A. H. Miller MVZ March 9, 1950 MVZ-120165 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Rosa Island A. H. Miller MVZ March 9, 1950 MVZ-120166 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Rosa Island A. H. Miller MVZ March 9, 1950 MVZ-120167 Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi Birds
Santa Rosa Island W. G. Abbott ROM March 29, 1951 ROM-87603 Lanius ludovicianus sonoriensis Birds