Difference between revisions of "SHEEP ON SANTA CRUZ ISLAND"

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'''1939:''' “...By 1937, the bands of sheep were cut down to 12,000, and are now [1939] being built up again with introduction of superior stock. With a great deal of work, a small quantity of wool has been produced which last year won a cup as the finest out of Southern California.” [O’Neil, Owen H. '''History of Santa Barbara County''' 1930 p. 367]
 
'''1939:''' “...By 1937, the bands of sheep were cut down to 12,000, and are now [1939] being built up again with introduction of superior stock. With a great deal of work, a small quantity of wool has been produced which last year won a cup as the finest out of Southern California.” [O’Neil, Owen H. '''History of Santa Barbara County''' 1930 p. 367]
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'''December 11, 1942 [E. L. Stanton letter]:''' “...Our portion of this island has been run as a ranch for over 100 years, primarily as a sheep ranch, but since our acquisition we are endeavoring to change to cattle. The process is a slow one as many of the sheep have gone wild and they must be cleared out. It also has been necessary to build trails and roads and arrange for proper water for the cattle. There is an abundance of water well distributed over the island...”
  
  

Revision as of 20:18, 23 March 2020

Sheep on Santa Cruz Island, 1997
Pete Olivari working sheep on
Santa Cruz Island, c. 1938


SHEEP ON SANTA CRUZ ISLAND

Sheep were introduced to Santa Cruz Island as early as 1851. They were initially managed under the ownership of Andres Castillero (1839-1857); William E. Barron (1857-1869); and the Santa Cruz Island Company (1869-1937). When Edwin L. Stanton bought the western 9/10th of Santa Cruz Island, sheep were excluded from good cattle country, and shearing operations ceased. The animals became completely feral, living in large numbers on the islands's northern section and throughout the island in smaller scattered flocks. The Santa Cruz Island Hunt Club shot and managed sheep numbers until the 1980s.

The first massive sheep eradication was conducted in 1982 by The Nature Conservancy, when over 10,000 sheep were shot from helicopters with men using high-powered rifles. This same year Golden Eagles were recorded on Santa Cruz Island for the first time. (This author hypothesizes they were lured to the island by the large sheep slaughter.) Over the next seventeen years, both The Nature Conservancy and Channel Islands National Park participated in sheep eradication hunts where the animals were shot and left where they died, picked over by ravens and island foxes. The last of the feral sheep were removed from Santa Cruz Island by the National Park Service in August, 1999. A lone ram was found and killed during the pig eradication circa 2003.

Fichas [Sp., tokens] were used on both Santa Cruz and San Miguel islands as a means of keeping track of the numbers of sheep sheared by individual shearers. When a vaquero had sheared a sheep, he wrapped the fleece into a bundle, tossed it on to a broad shelf to be packed into a sack by the packer, and received a ficha from el fichero to keep tab on the number of sheep he had shorn. His pay would depend on the number of fichas collected each day during the shearing season.


ISLAND COLLECTOR INSTITUTION DATE NUMBER SPECIMEN
Santa Cruz Island J. A. Hornung LACM n. d. LACM-30301 Ovis Mammals
Santa Cruz Island F. E. Durham LACM April 2, 1955 LACM-023250 Ovis Mammals
Santa Cruz Island F. E. Durham LACM April 2, 1955 LACM-023251 Ovis Mammals




In the News~

Under the ownership of Andres Castillero (1839-1857):

[1851]: “I [James B. Shaw] have paid the taxes on [Santa Cruz Island] since 1851, and have placed cattle and horses and sheep on it; built houses and made canals and cut roads on it.” Island of Santa Cruz, Andres Castillero vs. The United States; Testimony of James B. Shaw, 1857.


[1853]: “The raising of sheep had not yet developed any importance at the time of my arrival [in Los Angeles in 1853]; most of the mutton then consumed in Los Angeles coming from Santa Cruz Island, in the Santa Barbara Channel, though some was brought from San Clemente and Santa Catalina islands. On the latter there was a herd of from eight to ten thousand sheep in which Oscar Macy later acquired an interest... Santa Cruz Island had much larger herds, and steamers running to and from San Francisco often stopped there to take on sheep and sheep products.” Newmark, Harris Sixty Years in Southern California New York: Knickerbocker Press, 1926 (216).


[1853-1854]: “… During my residence in Mexico I made arrangements with Messrs. Barron Forbes & Co. of Mexico with whom I agreed to return to California and take an interest in and management of their Island of Santa Cruz in the channel of Santa Barbara, 26 miles from the city of Santa Barbara., taking up my residence in the city. In September 1853 from the Island of Santa Rosa purchased a flock of 200 sheep which they delivered from Captain Thompson to the Island of Santa Cruz. In the subsequent yer ’54 purchased a flock in Los Angeles Co recently arrived overland 1000 head. These were removed to the island same year. This business was successfully carried on until February 1869 when we sold out to French German Company the island and 54,000 head of sheep. Having shipped to San Francisco every year 3000 and over—balance being sold at home which was about 7000 head. This being up to the termination of possession… The carrying on of the business at the island was attended with very peculiar difficulties. First of all there not being any vessels of any size belonging to the port and was obliged to charter from San Francisco at a time when freight was running very high. Ordinary communication was kept up by open boats, for the purpose of carrying provisions and all necessary materials in the business. The passage across was sometimes very rough and tedious. I have sat at the helm from 6 AM until 4 AM of the next morning. The second trouble was in obtaining native help, the island having once been used as a penal settlement, they dreaded being detained over there as prisoners. Was obliged to resort to sailors for my help, who though entirely ignorant of agricultural pursuits were amenable to discipline and faithful in carrying out my orders. In a year or two after the Indians found the communication with the mainland was regular and frequent I had no trouble in obtaining whatever help I required, either Indian, Californio or white. The purchase of the first lot of sheep from Captain Thompson proved to be so wild and of such inferior quality that I was compelled to obtain stock of better quality, which I fortunately found at San Gabriel for both lots I paid $12 per head. The latter lot from San Gabriel to the island cost me $4.00 per head extra. My mutton sheep always commanded the highest market price in San Francisco. I have obtained as high as 30 cents a pound wholesale. My principal shipments were always made by steamer in the winter season. I was the first shipper and kept the trade to myself for three years. After a few years this magnificent market was destroyed by sheep arriving overland from Sonora. The amount of my expenditure was over $20,000 annually in carrying on the necessary business of the island. This does not include any expense of transportation of produce to market…” Shaw, James Barron. Stock raising on Santa Cruz Island. Notes dictated to H. H. Bancroft, BANC MSS C-D 259.


August 9, 1855 [SBG]: “Wool growing… Our worthy fellow citizen, Mr. J. B. Shaw, has lately, with commendable enterprise, purchased and placed upon the Island of Santa Cruz, within the limits of this county, about one thousand Merino sheep. In the success of this experiment we shall take great interest, as contributing much, in fact and by example, to the wealth of the county.”


June 9, 1856 [SBG]: “The Ann G. Doyle, Captain Phillips, arrived at this port last evening from Santa Cruz Island with wool.”


1856: “When Harris Newmark went to Los Angeles in 1856 the mutton consumed in the village came largely from Santa Cruz Island, although small quantities were brought in from San Clemente and Santa Catalina. [Newmark, Harris Sixty Years in Southern California 1916].


August 16, 1857 [W. E. Greenwell to A. D. Bache, Report of the Superintendent of the U.S. Coast Survey for 1857]: “U.S. Schooner Humboldt, Prisoners Harbor, Dear Sir: In conformity with your instructions of June 16th, I forward you a summary report of work executed the past year… The claim to this island has also been confirmed, and it is considered private property. At present there are some 7000 or 8000 head of sheep upon it, and probably the finest in California. The excellence of Santa Cruz mutton is proverbial in the San Francisco market, and it commands occasionally almost fabulous prices…”


Under the ownership of William E. Barron (1857-1869):


April 17, 1858 [Los Angeles Star]: “...getting aboard the noble craft, the Senator, were anon steaming out of the interesting harbor of San Pedro. Next morning, ere the rosy dawn, we were lying off the island of Santa Cruz, one of the Santa Barbara Channel Islands. Here we remained some hours taking aboard sheep, the island's contribution to appease the hungry maws of San Francisco. Whilst then, the men taking them aboard from the beach, where, recumbent, and bound as to their trotters, they are patiently awaiting their destiny, let us step into the boat which Capt. Seely has kindly placed at our disposal, pull ashore, and see how the land lies...”


April 17, 1858 [Los Angeles Star]: “...The Channel Islands extend from Point Conception to San Diego—the most important of them laying off and forming Santa Barbara county... [Santa Cruz] Island is rough, ragged and mountainous, the peaks, as those in front of us rising up from 1500 to 2000 feet above the ocean; so steep are the sides of the mountains, that it is with difficulty they can be ascended, even afoot. There is a good stream of water on the island, emptying into the ocean at the harbor. Following the course of this ravine for about three miles, we are led to the residence of Dr. Shaw, the occupant of the island; it is situated in a valley, about two miles long. Here the Doctor has erected a most comfortable dwelling house, with extensive sheds and office houses, with substantial cottages for his men. There is not a better appointed nor more complete establishment in California than this—every comfort that can be desired is found here, except the "trifling" one of society. The Doctor resides at Santa Barbara. He has eight or ten thousand sheep on the island, the finest, probably, in the country. Santa Cruz mutton is much sought after, and sometimes commands very high prices in San Francisco market. No part of the island is fit for cultivation; Dr. Shaw has repeatedly made the experiment and failed to realize a crop...”


May 25, 1858 [DAC]: “Island for sheep raising. For sale — an island containing about 60,000 acres of land, well-watered, and abounding in small valleys of the best pasturage for sheep. There are no wild animals on it that would interfere with the stock. There is a good harbor and safe anchorage. The owner is now in the city, and if a party should desire to place stock on it, an arrangement may be made to do so, by putting the island, to a certain extent, against the stock furnished. There are about fifty sheep now upon the island. Apply at 119 Sansome Street. [This ad ran for several weeks. Note: On June 21, 1857 title to Santa Cruz Island transferred from Andres Castillero to William E. Barron. The Bolton—Barron building was located in San Francisco at Montgomery and Merchant streets.]


September 29, 1858 [SDU]: “We have frequently heard of the rare breed of sheep on Santa Cruz Island, but have had no opportunity of seeing a specimen until this week, when we visited the building of Dr. Shaw, and were surprised at the sight of a young monster Merino ram—his age being only six months—weight one hundred and two pounds, standing thirty-one inches, and covered to the very hoofs with close fine wool—looking, to the careless observer, as if he had been lately shorn. We are not the best judges of rams, through we are of mutton; but we are convinced we never saw a finer animal, for age, shape, weight and fineness of wool; he is of the improved French Merino.”


February 11, 1859 [SFDEB]: “Within a short distance of Santa Barbara are some 15,000 head of sheep, from New Mexico, on their way north, and there are some 20,000 more between this town and Los Angeles. The price that is asked is $4 per head. Sheep of a much finer variety can be purchased in this county; and we doubt if anything superior can be found in the state than those owned by Dr. Shaw on the Island of Santa Cruz. Judging from the number of persons that have purchased from the Doctor, for the purpose of raising sheep, Santa Barbara County bids fair, in a few years to be one of the greatest sheep producers in the State.”


Dr. J. B. Shaw had record of civic service… In 1861, Dr. Shaw, as manager of the Santa Cruz Island Company, imported a number of valuable jacks and sheep from the Balearic Islands and from England. The jacks were of the Maltese variety and cost $1500 each. The sheep were Spanish and Merino bucks and Leicester bucks and ewes. One of the bucks was left at the New Almaden quicksilver mine and the other two and the sheep were liberated on Santa Cruz Island…”


February 27, 1865 [SDU]: “The Senator arrived from Santa Cruz Island today with seventeen hundred sheep for the markets.”


July 11, 1865 [DAC]: “Schooner Eustace, [Captain] Furlong, 5 days from Santa Cruz Island; wool &c. to Barron & Co.”


[1868]: “The Messrs. Barron of San Francisco, who own this island, graze about 30,000 sheep upon it.” T. F. Cronise The Natural Wealth of California (1868)


June 6, 1868 [SDU]: “We were shown yesterday morning a roll of wool taken from the back of an American sheep raised on Santa Cruz Island by Dr. Shaw of this place, measuring at fair measurement nineteen and a half inches. Whilst we can raise sheep having wool this length, possessing the fineness of the specimen before us, it is unnecessary to import. The wool can be seen at the Cape Wine Depot.”


February 15, 1869 [DAC]: “It is reported that some Germans have bought Santa Cruz Island, and intend to stock it with sheep.”


February 17, 1869 [SBP]: “Sale of Santa Cruz Island. The San Francisco Herald says: ‘We hear that the island of Santa Cruz has been sold to an association of French and German wool-growers’—report says for the sum of $150,000. If so, the purchasers have certainly secured a great bargain, for the island is one of the largest and most fertile on the California coast… For many years past it has been occupied as a sheep run, and now contains some thirty or forty thousand sheep, for the improvement of which the proprietors are said to have taken great pains.”


March 3, 1869 [SBP]: “Ed. Post: I have no doubt but your paper will duly record the sale and transfer of the Island of Santa Cruz to new owners; yet no comment that you could make in reference to this sale and transfer can express to the public the feeling of regret it has caused to one and all in the employ of Dr. Shaw on this island. This feeling will exist with every one who has worked for him since he first established a stick rancho, be they at present in his employ or not; and we, the present residents of this island, desire to return our sincere thanks and gratitude to him for the kind protection he has extended to us since we have been in his employ, knowing the amount of care he has extended to us in our sickness, and the liberal manner in which he has administered, to our numerous wants, is such as can only be extended by the hand of a philanthropist and Christian gentleman... Several practical sheep farmers have come to the island, of late, to see it, being anxious to purchase it. They allege that they found all the houses and stores on the ranches to be of first quality, and that the arrangements in the shearing sheds and sheep yards were superior to that seen on the mainland; yet they disliked to face the task of managing stock in such a rough country. Yet all the difficulties attending the working of sheep on this island have been overcome by Dr. Shaw, and owing to the splendid arrangements of sheep yards that has been established by this present manager on all the ranchos, the men being well experienced in the way of collecting the sheep in the hills and working them through the yards, they find no difficulty when an order comes for a thousand ewes or wethers or of a certain age or class. They can collect in a day in the hills from six to seven thousand of all ages. The next day they are all run through the yards; the lambs, to the amount of 1500, being separated into pens by themselves, and altered and marked; the ewes and wethers, as per order, in number and quality, in pens by themselves, ready for shipment. And all this large body of sheep is thorouglhy overhauled in eight hours time, having no hand put upon them, nor are they pulled about, excepting the holding of the lambs to be marked. At the present time, notwithstanding the wild nature of the sheep, owing to their running at large from place to place, they can be collected and sorted off with an amount of science and dispatch that cannot be well surpassed on the most improved ranchos on the mainland. But to be enabled to do this, it has taken years to learn this science of sheep farming as it is carried out here, and it has been part of the difficulties that Dr. Shaw has had to contend with, but at the present time has mastered… I remain, sir, one of many who wish Dr. Shaw all happiness and prosperity.” [unsigned]



Under the ownership of the Santa Cruz Island Company 1869-1937


July 24, 1869 [SBP]: “Santa Cruz Island. Twenty-five miles right opposite Santa Barbara, is to be, after this, an occasional stopping place of the steamers passing up and down. Since it has come into the possession of its present owners, T. Lemmen Meyer & Co. of San Francisco, a wharf has been constructed on the northern or leeward side of the island, in a cove which makes in from a stream, and gives fine shelter from all winds but northers, to vessels at anchor. The wharf is 200 feet long, and at low tide there is 18 feet of water at the pier. The wharf is so constructed that on one side the cars take the bales of wool to the vessel, and on the other, cattle and sheep are driven to the steamer’s deck with perfect ease and safety. The island itself is some 25 miles long, and from 3 to 12 miles wide. It is used at present for nothing else but a sheep range, of which there are some 30,000 or more. Fine stock has been taken and will be kept there in addition. The products of the island are increasing so fast under the present management that it has been found necessary to furnish steam transportation to market. Wild hogs are so numerous that they have become a great nuisance, and the owners of the island are willing that Lux & Miller or any other man should shoot them, butcher them, corral them, clean them out any way they please, free of charge. As there are many steep places thereabouts, what fun it would be for the Gaderene demons to hunt there a week.”


February 19, 1870 [SBT]: “The steamship Santa Cruz left yesterday, bound for the island of Santa Cruz, where she will take a load of sheep and proceed to San Francisco.”


February 22, 1870 [DAC]: “Shipping intelligence. Arrived, February 21—Steamer Alexander, [Captain] Blethen, 78 hours from Santa Cruz Island; 700 sheep to J. [P.] Baca & Co.”


March 1, 1870 [DAC]: “Shipping intelligence. Arrived, February 28—Steamer Alexander, [Captain] Blethen, 2 days from Santa Cruz Island; 1025 sheep to N. [P.] Baca & Co.”


March 8, 1870 [DAC]: “Shipping intelligence. Arrived, March 7—Steamer Alexander, [Captain] Blethen, 2 days from Santa Cruz Island; 1,100 sheep to P. Baca.”


March 9, 1870 [SDU]: “The steamer Alexander arrived from Santa Cruz Island today with 1100 sheep.”


March 17, 1870 [DAC]: “For sale. To arrive from Santa Cruz Island, on or about the 7th inst., 1000 mutton sheep, more or less. For particulars, apply at the office of T. Lemmen Meyer. SW corner Front and Jackson streets.”


March 18, 1870 [DAC]: “Shipping intelligence. Arrived. Steamer Alexander, [Captain] Blethen, 2 days from Santa Cruz Island; sheep to P. Baca & Co. Importations, Santa Cruz Island —per Alexander 830 sheep, 70 bales wool.”


March 18, 1870 [SDU]: “Eight hundred and thirty sheep arrived from Santa Cruz Island on the steamer Alexandria.”


April 29, 1870 [SFDEB]: “For Sale by the Santa Cruz Island Company, deliverable at Santa Barbara, during months of June and July: 5,000 wethers, above one year old; 7,000 ewes, above one year old. For further particulars, apply to T. Lemmen Meyer, southwest corner Front and Jackson streets, or to H. Ohlmeyer, Santa Barbara.”


May 1, 1870 [DAC]: “For Sale by the Santa Cruz Island Company, deliverable at Santa Barbara, during months of June and July: 5,000 wethers, above one year old; 7,000 ewes, above one year old. For further particulars, apply to T. Lemmen Meyer, southwest corner Front and Jackson streets, or to H. Ohlmeyer, Santa Barbara.”


June 7, 1870 [SFDEB]: “Notice to sheep-raisers. For sale. About twelve hundred (more or less) choice Leicester ewes and lambs. The above is considered the best bred lot of direct descendants from stock imported by Dr. Shaw to the Island of Santa Cruz, from the celebrated stock of Mr Sandy. Home Pier Point, Leicestershire, England. The wool of this flock is unequaled in California for length of staple and lustre. They are in fine condition. Price moderate. For full particulars apply to Wm. Watson, San Rafael, Marin County, Cal.”


September 30, 1870 [DAC]: “Arrived. Schooner J. D. Sanborn, [Captain] Chase, 7 days from Santa Barbara; 300 barrels tallow, 4 dozen sheep tongues, 14 bales wool, 74 hogs, to Santa Cruz Island Company.”


October 22, 1870 [SBP]: “The Santa Cruz Island Company, composed of Mr. Ohlmeyer and others, successors of Dr. Shaw and Messrs. Barron, are extensively engaged in the sheep business, and have large clips, in part Merino and in part long wool.”


April 5, 1871 [DAC]: “Arrived. April 4. Steamer Santa Cruz, [Captain] Harloe, 38 hours from Santa Cruz Island; sheep and wool to Goodall & Nelson.”


April 20, 1872 [SBT]: “The steamer Senator, Captain M. Harloe, was engaged during the first of the present week in bringing in sheep from Santa Cruz Island to this place for the More brothers, who, we understand, purchased, a short time since, twenty thousand from the company, for the sum of $70,000. The captain of the Senator, unlike the passenger ships, brought the Senator up to the wharf in fine style, and discharged her cargo. The captain says there is no difficulty whatever in landing at our wharf.”


April, 1872 [SBT]: “The Senator has been engaged for some days in trans-porting to the mainland, from Santa Cruz, 20,000 head of sheep, for which More Brothers had paid the sum of $70,000.”


October 22, 1872 [SBWP]: “The Santa Cruz Island Company, composed of Mr. Ohlmeyer and others, successors of Dr. Shaw and Messrs. Barron, are extensively engaged in the sheep business, and have large clips, in part Merino and in part long wool…”


March 27, 1873 [EI]: “California farms on so big a scale that she has to form joint stock companies to get the necessary capital. The Santa Cruz Island Company, organized three years ago, bought an island, stocked it with several thousand sheep, and expended in all $225,000; and now they have just made a dividend of $48,000 profit.”


July 24, 1873 [SBDMT]: “Board of Equalization in the matter of the petition of H. Ohlmeyer for a reduction of the assessment of the Island of Santa Cruz, Ordered, Reduce number of acres to 52,760 (as per patent), at $1 per acre. Reduce number of sheep to 16,000 and lambs to 7000.”


September 26, 1873 [SBMP]: “The Constantine was unable to land at Hueneme on Thursday, on account of the heavy surf, which, at times, rolled over the end of the wharf. She unloaded her Hueneme freight at this place. She left our wharf yesterday afternoon for Santa Cruz Island, where she will take on about one hundred tons of wool, which will be shipped overland to Boston.”


September 27, 1873 [SBSWT]: “The steamer Constantine arrived at this port yesterday from Santa Cruz Island where she took on board a cargo of wool, 80 tons. She left for San Francisco in the afternoon.”


February 5, 1874 [LAH]: “The Santa Cruz Island Company was organized in 1869, having been incorporated under State authority, with half a million dollars’ capital, for carrying on the business of sheep-husbandry, stock-raising, etc. The island of Santa Cruz, one of the Santa Barbara group, was purchased by the company as a field of operations… There are now running at liberty over the island, flocks of Spanish Merino sheep, numbering between 40,000 and 45,000 head, worth, according to the season of the year — that is to say, with or without wool on — from $2 to $3.50 each, and representing an aggregate value of $150,000. Besides these immense flocks there is a stud of about 125 saddle and draft horses and mules, some breeding mares with colts, and a fine stallion of the Morgan stock, representing a value of $10,000 to $12,000; about thirty head of fine tame Devon cattle, including bull, milk cows and their increase for the use of the island, valued altogether at about $1,200 or $1,500; and finally, perhaps, 150 head of cattle running wild in the valleys and over the mountains, and affording, whenever desired, an extra supply of fresh beef for the use of the permanent residents on the island…”


March 12, 1874 [SBDP]: “The Constantine sailed at 8 A.M., taking 71 bales of wool and tons of other freight for San Francisco: forty-eight bales of this wool belonged to the Pacific Wool Growing Company, and twenty-three bales to the Santa Cruz Island Company.”


March 18, 1874 [SBDMT]: “A trip among the woolies… our attention was called to a saucy little schooner which at that moment was gliding into port under a cloud of snowy canvas. Upon inquiry we learned that it was the Star of Freedom, Captain Chase, and that she belonged to the Santa Cruz Island Company… We held a consultation with the captain, and two days later behold us on the deck of the yacht bound on a voyage of discovery to that mysterious land, Santa Cruz. We got under way at 10 A. M… On our way over we learned that the Company was in the midst of their annual shearing, and we determined to pay a visit to the ranch and see all we could… We were just in time, as they were at that moment preparing for a move to the mountains, there to camp for the night and commence driving the sheep at the first peep of day. Horses were kindly furnished us, and we joined the cavalcade fully determined to take the rough with the smooth. Up, up, up over the roughest trails we have ever seen traveled… It was nearly dark when we reached the rendezvous, a small basin at the top of the mountain, and immediately the work of unsaddling and tethering was gone through with… a sheep had been lassoed on the way, and was now quickly killed and flayed… and it was roasted before the fire on two huge iron spits… Long before daybreak the camp was astir, horses saddled, breakfast eaten and the party divided, for it was necessary for a portion of the men to go on foot through the canyons and drive the sheep to the ridges where the horsemen massed them in droves… it was no light task to keep those wild sheep moving in the proper direction… All being mounted, we dropped to the rear and followed them home where arrived late that afternoon… We were awakened early by the clang of the large ranch bell and hastily dressing we reported for breakfast after which we repaired to the shearing shed where the men were already at work. About thirty were shearing, and assuredly no crowd of school boys out for the holidays could be noisier or enjoy a joke more keenly than these men engaged in the hardest of all work, sheep shearing. It seems so easy, too, a sheep is caught by the hind leg, a peculiar twist and he is landed on his back, and before he is aware of it he is seated upon his haunches and the keen shears with their rapid click, click, are robbing him of his coat, which is carried to a table and bartered for a tin ticket valued at four cents. Here it is neatly folded and tied and is ready for sacking and pressing. An expert shearer can undress a hundred in a day, but the average is about sixty. It looks easy, but from the manner in which the men straighten themselves and press the spine, and the swollen muscles and cords of the arm, I would choose any other kind of manual labor in preference…”


April 4, 1874 [SDU]: “Wool — We have thus far received but a few lots of the Spring clip. The first of the season came from Santa Cruz Island, as being a very desirable lot, sold at 25 cents. Since then other small lots have appeared from the south and sold at 17-20 cents.”


April 25, 1874 [SBSWT]: “The schooner Star of Freedom came in from Santa Cruz Island yesterday morning with a cargo of wool belonging to the Island company.”


February 5, 1874 [LAH]: “Mr. S. Levy has a clipping of wool, brought from Santa Cruz Island, which measures fourteen inches in length of fibre.”


May 24, 1874 [SBDMT]: “The Star of Freedom, from Santa Cruz Island, brought over a lot of sheep.”


August 25, 1874 [SBDP]: “The steamer California arrived here yesterday afternoon from San Francisco. She stopped at More’s Landing in this county on the way down, and took aboard 200 tons of wheat from 400 tons which were awaiting shipment. She brought 10 tons of freight for this place, and after discharging this, she steamed to Hueneme where she will pick up a large amount of grain, and then proceed to Santa Cruz Island, ship 3000 of the 10,000 sheep proposed to be sent to market, and then sail for San Francisco.”


January 2, 1875 [SBWP]: “An island sheep ranch. Santa Cruz is a high, mountainous island, owned by a San Francisco company…”


March 24, 1875 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom sailed today with a gang of sheep-shearers for Santa Cruz Island.”


June 17, 1875 [SBDP]: “Mr. S. L. Skeels informs us that the Pacific Wool Growing Company whose sheep are pastured on Santa Cruz Island, have had a large clip of wool this year, some three hundred of the sheep sheared under his superintendence, averaging 30 pounds each, and two large Spanish merino bucks shearing 40-1/2 and 41 pounds respectively! The average price of wool will return an income of six dollars each for the three hundred sheep, and about eight dollars each for the two large ones. This makes a good showing for a dry year on the Santa Cruz Island. Our distant readers will remember that this island lies directly across the channel from Santa Barbara. We did not learn from Mr. Skeels the average per head of the immense flock of sheep kept on the island, but we understand that it was a large clip throughout the whole flock.”


July 9, 1875 [DAC]: “Santa Cruz Island .”


July 28, 1875 [DAC]: “Per Kalorama. Santa Cruz Island — 9 bales wool, 73 bundles pelts, 84 barrels tallow.”


August 14, 1875 [SBDN]: “Santa Cruz Island supports 15,000 sheep.”


November 1, 1875-June 30, 1875 [Stehman Forney, Annual Report]: “At Prisoners Harbor, there is a well of fresh water, but it is not so good as that in the pond, when not impregnated with salt. The improvements at Prisoners Harbor consist of a substantial wharf 515 feet in length, one dwelling house, extensive tanks for extracting tallow from the carcasses of sheep, this method is resorted to when there is no market for them, in order to dispose of the increase on the island, they generally kill from fifteen to twenty thousand sheep in one season’s operation.”


October 2, 1875 [SBDP]: “A sojourn in California… Having concluded to visit Santa Cruz Island by permission of its superintendent, we engaged a passage over on board of the small schooner Star of Freedom… There are usually about 15,000 sheep kept upon the island in charge of about forty herdsmen, each of whom has two horses, trained to follow and guard their flocks up and down the mountainsides… The amount of wool sheared has, in some seasons, reached 150,000 pounds, bringing unwashed (as all necessarily is) twenty-five to fifty cents per pound. This season the price has only been about sixteen cents…”


[1876]: “Santa Cruz Island is almost wholly given up to sheep-raising. It is estimated that in the spring of 1875 there were not less than 60,000 head of them on the island. In June, 15,000 of them were killed for the hide and tallow alone; the offal being carted down to the shore and cast into the water... On the grounds most visited by the herds of sheep, all vegetation, save sage brush, cactus and the erodium or storksbill, had been entirely swept away. The grass had gone completely, and such plants of the island flora as sheep would eat, it was with difficulty that I could get even a decent botanical specimen of. In fact, pasture had become so thin that the sheep at the time of my visit were wandering in very small bands that they might the more readily find food. Even the sage brush was disappearing, as year after year the sheep had eaten away at its leaves and younger shoots, until there was not left sufficient of the more green, succulent tissues to elaborate the sap...” [J. T. Rothrock in Wheeler, George M. Annual Report upon the geographical surveys west of the 100th meridian, in California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, Arizona, and Montana, being Appendix JJ of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1876.]


March 17, 1876 [SBDP]: “Sheep shearing is going on on Santa Cruz Island. The first shipment of wool arrived here yesterday, and will be sent to San Francisco today.”


March 17, 1876 [SBDN]: “The Star of Freedom brought 44 sacks of wool over from Santa Cruz Island yesterday, and it will be shipped to San Francisco today by the Los Angeles.”


March 22, 1876 [SBDN]: “The Star of Freedom came over from the island yesterday and brought 30 bales of wool for the More Brothers.”


March 28, 1876 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom made a trip from and to the island of Santa Cruz yesterday. She brought a lot of wool and skins.”


March 28, 1876 [SBDN]: “The Star of Freedom came over from the islands yesterday morning. She brought 18 sacks of wool and 17 bales of sheep pelts. She returned to Santa Cruz Island last evening.”


April 16, 1876 [SBDN]: “The Star of Freedom came over from Santa Cruz Island yesterday with 71 bales of wool. She will discharge her cargo on the wharf tomorrow.”


April 17, 1876 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom has brought another large cargo of wool from the island.”


May 11, 1876 [SBDN]: “The Star of Freedom came over from Santa Cruz Island yesterday with 30 bales of wool, the last of the present clipping.”


May 11, 1876 [SBDP]: “The last of the spring clip of wool came over from the island of Santa Cruz yesterday.”


June 3, 1876 [SBDP]: “The schooners Star of Freedom, Matinee, and Vision were the only vessels in port this morning. The Star of Freedom came over from the islands last night, bringing a few sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


June 13, 1896 [SFDEB]: “Australian matanzas... Experience on Santa Cruz Island. The writer, when on Santa Cruz Island in July last, was told by the manager of the matanza that, poor as the year was for grass, the sheep produced 25 to 30 pounds of tallow, and 12,000 had been boiled down. On that island the sheep run all year round wild on the hills, and are not herded in flocks, consequently the selection of inferior stock to be fattened for the matanza cannot be carried out and the returns cannot, therefore be so great. The sheep are collected in July and the fat wethers and the poor sheep are selected to the number they wish to get rid of to relieve the island and are sent to the matanza, the proceeds of the tallow and pelts making a considerable return to the company in addition to the wool...”


June 21, 1876 [SBDP]: “Killing sheep for their pelts and tallow is still going on on Santa Cruz Island. Over four hundred per day are being killed and boiled up.”


July 16, 1876 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom sailed from our harbor today for Santa Cruz Island... Mutton in Santa Barbara is selling from 3 to 8 cents a pound.”


July 24, 1876 [SBDP]: “The California sheepherder...‘put money in thy purse’ is the motto of the shepherd kings of California. Until lately, the extremely profitable nature of the pursuit has also led to the formation of some joint-stock companies, amongst the best known of which are... the Santa Cruz Island and Santa Catalina Island companies...”


August 19, 1876 [PRP]: “Sheep and Sheep Raisers in California — G. C. McKenzie, writing in the Los Angeles Herald, says that there are more or less sheep raised throughout California… Santa Cruz Island and Santa Catalina Island companies.”


November 4, 1876 [DAC]: “Importations. Per Idaho. Santa Cruz Island — 354 bales wool, 10 dozen pelts, 1 barrel tallow, 13 dry hides.”


March 20, 1877 [SBDP]: “A large party of sheep shearers arrived here in the Orizaba last evening, bound for Santa Cruz Island.”


March 22, 1877 [SBIndex]: “About 25 thousand sheep will be slaughtered today on Santa Cruz Island. The hides and tallow will be preserved, but the mutton will be a loss. Scarcity of food induced by the want of rain compels the sacrifice.”


March 26, 1877 [SBDP]: “…owing to dry weather and consequent short grass, the yield [of wool] was far below average… It is stated that parties will give sheep to anyone who will return the pelts. On Santa Cruz Island the same condition of things exists, with the difference that there is nobody accessible to give the flesh to, and it goes to the fishes. It would be a great thing if it could be dried or canned for shipment to points where meat is less plentiful…”


May 15, 1877 [SBDP]: “A large party of shearers and butchers are in town from the islands, and are indulging in a high old jamboree.”


May 28, 1877 [DAC]: “Importations. Per Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz Island. 14 bales wool, 144 bundles pelts, 23 hides, 24 barrels tallow, 33 sacks bones, 1 case clothing.”


June 29, 1877 [SBDP]: “A report has been maliciously circulated that an offensive smell is caused in the island by the slaughter of sheep. Captain Forney, who has been over there for some time, states that there is nothing offensive at all about the place. Those intending to visit the island on the Fourth can do so confident of spending a pleasant day.”


November 20, 1877 [SBDP]: “The Santa Cruz Island Company lost one thousand head of sheep last week. They were running in a band that was not herded, and the place where they got water was overflowed by the extreme high tides. Nearly one third of the whole band died from drinking the salt water. The company has already fed one hundred-fifty tons of hay because of scarcity of feed. The sheep are in good condition.”


March 25, 1878 [SBDP]: “Some forty men left today by the Star of Freedom for Santa Cruz, engaged by Mr. Joyaux as sheep-shearers. At least thirty-five of them are voters, and that makes it bad for somebody.”


April 16, 1878 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom came in yesterday from Santa Cruz Island with forty bales of wool and a lot of hides and pelts.”


April 23, 1878 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom arrived today from Santa Cruz Island with a number of sheep shearers on board.”


June 17, 1878 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom brought a load of wool and abalone shells from Catalina Island.”


August 30, 1878 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom will take twenty-five sheep-herders to Santa Cruz Island on Monday.”


August 30, 1878 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom will take 25 sheep shearers to Santa Cruz Island on Sunday.”


September 2, 1878 [SBDP]: “The Santa Cruz left for Santa Rosa Island this afternoon, taking, besides a number of sheep shearers, the engine and workmen from the Carpinteria wharf. Repairs are to be made on the wharf at the island.”


September 7, 1878 [SBWP]: “The Star of Freedom will take twenty-five sheep-shearers to Santa Cruz Island on Monday.”


October 5, 1878 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived in the bay yesterday afternoon about 4 o’clock from Prisoners’ Harbor bringing the shearers from Santa Cruz Island. She was 33 hours making the passage. No wind. The steamer Santa Cruz is lying at Prisoners’ Harbor, Santa Cruz Island, loading with wool.”


October 8, 1878 [DAC]: “San Pedro. Santa Cruz Island. 51 bales wool.”


October 12, 1878 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom arrived yesterday afternoon from Prisoners’ Harbor with Superintendent Joyaux in the cabin and six passengers in the steerage. She brought thirty bales of wool.”


September 15, 1879 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom was taking on a lot of sheep shearers today, and sailed for Santa Cruz Island.”


October 30, 1879 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom landed a small quantity of wool and dried mutton from Santa Cruz Island at the wharf this morning.”


November 8, 1879 [SBWP]: “The Santa Cruz Island Company shipped 170 bales of wool for this year’s clip. At an average of 300 pounds to the bale, this would be 51,000 pounds of wool.”


February 25, 1880 [SHR/100]: “Captain Harrington has just finished building a large lighter, near his residence on Montecito Street. It is to be taken to the east end of Santa Cruz Island to be used in removing sheep from the island. It is of the capacity of about 40 tons and can carry 150 sheep at each load.”


March 19, 1880 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom leaves tomorrow for Santa Cruz Island, taking over a large party of sheep shearers...”


March 29, 1880 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom arrived about 7 o’clock last night from the island of Santa Cruz. She brought over 180 lambs and 300 old sheep, which were shipped by Mr. Tucker to the San Francisco market.”


March 30, 1880 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom left the wharf at noon yesterday for Island Santa Cruz. On her last trip she brought over 20 bags of wool and 25 sacks of abalone shells. She is to return on Friday with 300 sheep to be shipped on the Orizaba.”


April 3, 1880 [PRP]: “Livestock—The following transactions are reported to us: 1600 lambs, Santa Cruz Island, $1.50 each, delivered at Santa Barbara…”


April 5, 1880 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom left yesterday for Santa Cruz Island, where she goes to bring over about 300 sheep to be shipped on the Ancon on her trip up.”


April 8, 1880 [SBDP]: “Schooner Star of Freedom arrived yesterday from the Santa Cruz Island bringing 290 lambs, which were shipped today on the Ancon by Mr. Tucker. The schooner returned this morning to the island and will bring over on Monday a lot of sheep to be shipped on the Orizaba Tuesday for the San Francisco market.”


April 12, 1880 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom arrived this morning from Santa Cruz Island with 251 lambs for Mr. Tucker, who will ship them on the Orizaba tomorrow morning. The schooner will return to the island tomorrow.”


April 17, 1880 [SBDP]: “Mr. W. Tucker and P. Ford returned last night from their trip to Santa Cruz Island. Mr. Tucker, while there purchased two thousand head of sheep, and Mr. Ford succeeded in shooting an enormous wild turkey, weighing twenty-four pounds. It is said to be the genuine wild turkey of Texas. Mr. Ford brought the turkey back with him and is having it served up in the best style of the Morris House.”


May 19, 1880 [SDU]: “…The clip of the Santa Cruz Island Company is more extensive, reaching 100,000 pounds…”


September 11, 1880 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom took some sheep shearers over to Santa Cruz Island today; also a number of men to work on the wharf there which is being repaired.”


October 25, 1880 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom, Captain Burtis, arrived from Santa Cruz Island Saturday night with 72 bales of wool. The aggregate weight of this wool is 20,500 pounds. It is owned by the Santa Cruz Island Company, and is only a small part of the fall clip. The Company have something like forty thousand sheep on the island. The wool was shipped to San Francisco this morning on the Ancon.”


December 1, 1880 [SBDI]: “Santa Cruz Island spring lamb at California Market. I. K. Fisher & Co. Telephone 21.”


February 18, 1881 [SBDP]: “The Santa Cruz Island Company recently sold 15,000 head of sheep to Merry Faul & Company of San Francisco.”


February 23, 1881 [SBDP]: “Captain Harrington has just finished building a large lighter near his residence on Montecito Street. It is to be taken to the east end of Santa Cruz Island, to be used in removing sheep from the island. It is of the capacity of about forty tons, and can carry 150 sheep at each load.”


February 23, 1881 [SBU]: “San Francisco Meat Market… Shipments of fine mutton sheep are being received from Santa Cruz Island by steamer and find quick sale.”


February 24, 1881 [SBDP]: “Plenty of sheep buyers, sent from San Francisco firms, are in and around Santa Barbara. Wm. Tucker, from Merry Faul & Co., is at Santa Cruz Island. He reports the sheep there in a fine condition.”


Feb. 26, 1881 [SBWP]: “Captain Harrington has just finished building a large lighter, near his residence on Montecito Street. It is to be taken to the east end of Santa Cruz Island to be used in removing sheep from the island. It is of the capacity of about 40 tons and can carry 150 sheep at each load.”


March 8, 1881 [SBDP]: “Mr. J. B. Joyaux, superintendent of the Santa Cruz Island Company, is in this city, getting sheep shearers to take to the island. They are expecting to commence shearing about the middle of the month. Thirty-five men are wanted.”


March 8, 1881 [SBDP]: “We received a call this afternoon from W. M. Tucker, who recently purchased 14,500 sheep on Santa Cruz Island for Merry, Faul & Co. He reports that a thousand of these sheep are being shipped every ten days on the steamer Santa Cruz, which has been chartered especially for this purpose. Four thousand sheep have already been shipped, and it will take some months to transport the entire lot. The sheep are in extra fine condition, and are pronounced to be the best mutton taken to the City this season. There are 45,000 head of stock sheep on the island, in addition to the lot purchased. The lambing season was very successful, and the increase in unusually great. Feed on the island is in excellent condition, and with the assistance of the present rain will be splendid. Mr. Tucker has lately purchased 3000 young lambs for the firm which he represents.”


March 12, 1881 [SBWP]: “Mr. J. B. Joyaux, Superintendent of the Santa Cruz Island Company, is in this city, getting sheep shearers to take to the island. They are expecting to commence shearing about the middle of the month. Thirty-five men are wanted.”


March 12, 1881 [SBWP]: “We received a call this forenoon from W. M. Tucker, who recently purchased 14,500 sheep on Santa Cruz Island for Merry, Faul & Co. He reports that a thousand of these sheep are being shipped every ten days on the steamer Santa Cruz which has been chartered especially for this purpose. Four thousand sheep have already been shipped, and it will take some 4 months to transport the entire lot. The sheep are in fine condition, and are pronounced to be the best mutton taken to the city this season. There are 45,000 head of stock sheep on the island, in addition to the lot purchased. The lambing season is in excellent condition, and with the assistance of the present rain will be splendid.” [Also SBDP 3/8/1881]


May 16, 1881 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom, Captain Burtis, arrived from the Santa Cruz Island this forenoon, with a cargo of sheep and hides.”


March 18, 1881 [SDU]: “W. M. Tucker recently purchased 14,500 sheep on Santa Cruz Island for Merry, Faul & Co. The Santa Barbara Press says there still remains on the island 45,000 head of sheep. Feed on the island is now in excellent condition.”


May 24, 1881 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom, Captain Burtis, yesterday sailed for Santa Cruz Island. She will return tomorrow.”


May 27, 1881 [SBDP]: “J. B. Joyaux, superintendent of Santa [Cruz] Island, arrived from San Francisco by the Constantine this morning. He will go to the island on the schooner Star of Freedom tomorrow.”


June 20, 1881 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom, Captain Burtis, came over from Santa Cruz Island Saturday night with sheep for I. K. Fisher, and several horses for Nick Covarrubias.”


June 25, 1881 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom, Captain Burtis, sailed for Santa Cruz Island this morning. She took over a number of work horses.”


September 5, 1881 [SBDP]: “Isla de Santa Cruz. Aviso los vaqueros y trasquiladores. La salida para trasquilar en esta Isla se efectuara el dia diez de Septiembre: los enganchos se haran desde el dia siete. J. B. Joyaux.”


September 7, 1881 [SBDP]: “Sheep shearing on Santa Cruz Island begins on Monday next; and on Santa Rosa Island on the 21st.”


October 19, 1881 [SBDP]: “The Constantine is expected to call at Santa Cruz Island for wool in a few days.”


February 17, 1882 [SBDP]: “The five inches of snow reported as falling on Santa Cruz Island fell only on the highest summits. Superintendent Joyaux says no snow fell in the valleys. The sheep on the island are doing finely, and little or no mortality has occurred. The grass is springing up, although growth is somewhat retarded by the cold weather, and feed is very good, and with a few days of warm weather, will be excellent.”


March 27, 1882 [SBDP]: “La salida para trasquilar en esta Isla se effectuara el dia ocho de Abril. Los enganchos se haran el dia cinco. J. B. Joyaux. Superintendent.”


May 31, 1882 [SBDP]: “J. B. Joyaux, superintendent of the Santa Cruz Island Company, came over to Santa Barbara last Saturday. He reports the shearing all finished for the season. The sheep are in fine condition, and 12,000 have been sold. They will be transferred to San Francisco by installments, 1,000 at a time. The steamer Bonita stops at the island on the 3rd of June to carry away the first thousand.”


September 22, 1882 [SBDP]: “J. B. Joyaux leaves tomorrow morning on the schooner Star of Freedom for Santa Cruz Island with fifty men to commence the work of sheep shearing.”


March 17, 1883 [SBDP]: “A schooner belonging to the Santa Cruz Island Company left this morning for the islands carrying a load of sheep shearers.”


September 14, 1883 [SBDI]: “Thirty sheep shearers will start for Santa Cruz Island tomorrow morning to shear the full clip of wool.”


October 2, 1883 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived from Santa Cruz Island last night. She brought 184 sheep for the Santa Barbara markets.”


October 24, 1883 [SBDI]: “The sheep upon Santa Cruz Island are reported by the superintendent, J. Blanchard, now in town, to be in fine condition. Mr. Blanchard makes a trip to San Francisco before returning to the island.”


November 19, 1883 [SFMC]: “…[Mr. More] still retains an interest in the Santa Cruz Island ranch, which is about 25 miles southeast of Santa Barbara. This island contains about 64,000 acres, and on it are 25,000 sheep…”


April 1, 1884 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom was in port yesterday, having come to the mainland for sheep shears for Santa Cruz Island.


April 2, 1884 [DAC]: “Importations. Per Newport. Santa Cruz Island — 258 bls wool; 5 bdls pelts; 2 bbls tallow. Consignees. Santa Cruz Island Company…”


April 5, 1884 [SBDI]: “A company numbering in the neighborhood of thirty sheep shearers left in the Star of Freedom this morning for Santa Cruz Island for the semi-annual clip.”


April 23, 1884 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom arrived from Santa Cruz Island yesterday with 110 head of sheep for I. K. Fisher.”


April 26, 1884 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom and Ocean King today take from twenty to thirty sheep shearers to the islands.”


June 24, 1884 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom arrived yesterday morning from Santa Cruz Island. She has just returned from San Pedro where she has been treated to a new coat of paint, and is now looking very well.”


November 12, 1884 [SBDI]: “The schooner Santa Rosa arrived in our harbor yesterday from Santa Cruz Island with one hundred head of fine sheep on board consigned to I. K. Fisher.”


December 18, 1884 [SBDI]: “The Star of Freedom arrived this morning from Santa Cruz Island with a cargo of sheep consigned to I. K. Fisher.”


December 23, 1884 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom, Captain Prescott, came over from the island last night with 150 head of sheep for this market.”


February 19, 1885 [SBDI]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived last evening with a cargo of sheep for I. K. Fisher. The vessel has recently undergone a thorough overhauling and she is now in first class trim, calculated to endure heavy weather if necessary.”


February 19, 1885 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom came in last night from Santa Cruz Island bringing 82 head of fine sheep for I. K. Fisher. The vessel has just returned from San Pedro where she was treated to repairs and fresh paint, and now looks as pretty as a new pleasure yacht.” [also SBMP]


February 24, 1885 [SBDP]:Star of Freedom came in last night from Santa Cruz Island with a cargo of eighty fine sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


February 27, 1885 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom yesterday came over from Santa Cruz Island with 180 head of fine fat sheep for I. K. Fisher.”

March 5, 1885 [SBDI]:Star of Freedom arrived this morning from Santa Cruz Island with a cargo of sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


March 5, 1885 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom arrived from the islands last night bringing a cargo of fine fat sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


March 5, 1885 [SBDP]: “The steamer Santa María yesterday morning took from Santa Cruz Island a band of sheep being shipped to San Francisco by Sherman & Ealand. Mr. Sherman accompanied the shipment.”


March 12, 1885 [SBDI]:Star of Freedom discharged a cargo of sheep yesterday, consigned by I. K. Fisher.”


March 20, 1885 [SBDI]: “The Star of Freedom leaves tomorrow with a number of sheep shearers.”


April 28, 1885 [DAC]: “Importations. Per Santa Maria. Santa Cruz Island — 622 sheep, 1 bx lamps.”


May 8, 1885 [1885]: “Importations. Per Santa Maria. Santa Cruz Island—675 sheep, 6 bls wool, 9 do pelts.”


May 11, 1885 [SBDI]: “The sheep shearers arrived from Santa Cruz Island yesterday.”


May 19, 1885 [DAC]: “Importations. Per Santa Maria. Santa Cruz Island — 677 sheep, 1 steer, 65 bls wool, 1 bx merchandise.”


May 22, 1884 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom came over from Santa Cruz Island Tuesday with two hundred head of sheep for I. K. Fisher. The schooner sailed for the island again this morning.”


June 7, 1885 [DAC]: “Importations. Per Santa Maria. Santa Cruz Island — 626 sheep, 6 hogs.”


June 17, 1885 [DAC]: “Importations. Per Santa Maria. Santa Cruz Island — 596 sheep, 1 kg nails, 1 bbl tallow.”


July 8, 1885 [SBDP]: “A number of sheep herders today went over to Santa Cruz Island on the schooner, Star of Freedom.”


July 27, 1885 [DAC]: “Importations. Per Santa Maria. Santa Cruz Island — 451 sheep, 15 hogs, 1 cow, 1 steer, 2 bdls dry pelts, 1 bbl tallow… Consignees. Per Percy Edwards. Santa Cruz Island Company.”


August 18, 1885 [DAC]: “Importations. Per Santa Maria. Santa Cruz Island — 466 sheep, 60 bls wool.”


September 25, 1886 [SBDI]: “Schooner Star of Freedom left this morning for Santa Cruz Island, having on board forty men who are to engage in sheep shearing.”


Spring of 1887 J. Walter Fewkes remarks: “…As we row along we see here and there on the sides of the canons a few sheep and one or two wild hogs…” (Across the Santa Barbara Channel in The American Naturalist XXIII:268 (212), April 1889.


April 9, 1887 [SBDI]: “Schooner Star of Freedom arrived this morning from Santa Cruz Island. She brought over a cargo of lambs for I. K. Fisher.”


April 14, 1887 [SBDI]: “The Star of Freedom arrived from Santa Cruz Island with cattle on board today.”


May 12, 1887 [SBDI]: “Schooner Star of Freedom yesterday brought over from Santa Cruz Island a cargo of spring lambs.”


September 6, 1887 [SBMP]: “Sheep shearing will begin on Santa Cruz Island about the 25th of this month. An extra good yield is expected, as the season has been a favorable one.”


September 26, 1887 [SBDI]: “A large number of sheep shearers went over to Santa Cruz Island this morning on the Star of Freedom.”


November 1, 1887 [SBDP]: “The Star of Freedom arrived from Santa Cruz Island Sunday evening with twenty-four sheep and forty sheep shearers on board. The schooner Star of Freedom leaves today for Santa Cruz Island.”


November 1, 1887 [SBMP]: “The sheep shearing season on Santa Cruz Island is over.”


March 27, 1888 [SBDI]: “The schooner Star of Freedom left for the islands yesterday with thirty-nine sheep shearers on board. The schooner will hereafter be commanded by Captain Frank Thompson.”


April 5, 1888 [SBDI]: “The schooner Star of Freedom yesterday brought fifty head of sheep from Santa Cruz Island for L. Carteri.”


April 23, 1888 [SBDI]: “The schooner Star of Freedom yesterday brought 110 sheep from Santa Cruz Island for Sherman and Ealand.”


April 24, 1888 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived night before last from Santa Cruz Island with 110 sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


May 1, 1888 [SBDI]: “The schooner Santa Rosa did not manage to get away yesterday, but left this morning with seventy-five sheep shearers on board for Santa Cruz Island.”


May 2, 1888 [SBDI]: “The schooner Star of Freedom came in last night from Santa Cruz with 150 sheep, most of them for Sherman & Ealand.”


May 3, 1888 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived Tuesday night from Santa Cruz Island with 109 sheep for Sherman & Ealand and about 30 sheep shearers.”


May 11, 1888 [SBDI]: “The schooner Star of Freedom, Captain Thompson, arrived from Santa Cruz Island this morning with 100 sheep for Sherman & Ealand, and 60 for L. Carteri.”


May 12, 1888 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived from Santa Cruz Island yesterday morning with 160 sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


May 22, 1888 [SBDI]: “The schooner Star of Freedom brought over from the island today 100 sheep for Sherman & Ealand, and ninety for L. Carteri.”


May 23, 1888 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom, Captain Thompson, arrived night before last from Santa Cruz Island. She brought 100 sheep for Sherman & Ealand, and 90 for L. Carteri.”


June 18, 1888 [SBDI]: “The schooner Star of Freedom brought 180 sheep for Sherman & Ealand and L. Carteri from Santa Cruz Island yesterday.”


June 23, 1888 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom, Captain Thompson, arrived night-before-last from Santa Cruz Island with 96 sheep for Leon Carteri.”


July 3, 1888 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom discharged 75 sheep on the wharf for Sherman & Ealand yesterday morning. She arrived from Santa Cruz Island Sunday afternoon.”


July 12, 1888 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived from Santa Cruz Island last Tuesday evening with 174 sheep for Sherman & Ealand and L. Carteri.”


October 20, 1888 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom brought 85 sheep Thursday evening for Sherman & Ealand.”


October 25, 1888 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived Tuesday night with 133 sheep for Sherman & Ealand and Leon Carteri.”


November 11, 1888 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived yesterday morning from Santa Cruz Island with 115 sheep for Leon Carteri.”


November 24, 1888 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom brought 100 sheep Thursday afternoon from Santa Cruz Island for Sherman & Ealand.”


January 4, 1889 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived from Santa Cruz Island yesterday morning with a load of sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


January 18, 1889 [SBMP]: “The Star of Freedom arrived from Santa Cruz Island Wednesday night with 138 sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


May 7, 1889 [SBMP]: “A schooner-load of sheep from Santa Cruz was unloaded at the wharf yesterday.”


May 9, 1889 [SBMP]: “Word was brought from Santa Cruz Island by the schooner Tuesday that a cutting affray had taken place on the island and several men were badly injured. Dr. Winchester was taken aboard to attend to them and the schooner sailed yesterday morning. The captain’s story was to the effect that he had been made to make a landing at the island, but a sheep herder told him of the fight from the wharf and asked him to turn about and bring a doctor, which he did. Absolutely no details were obtained. Another sails for the island today or tomorrow.”


June 11, 1889 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom came over from Santa Cruz Island yesterday with 180 sheep.”


June 16, 1889 [SBMP]: “The Star of Freedom brought 160 sheep for I. K. Fisher from Santa Cruz Island Friday, and returned after more.”


June 18, 1889 [SBMP]: “The Star of Freedom came over from Santa Cruz Island yesterday with 170 sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


September 3, 1889 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom came in from Santa Cruz Island last Saturday evening with 170 head of sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


October 8, 1889 [SBDI]: “The Star of Freedom arrived yesterday from Santa Cruz Island with 175 sheep for I. K. Fisher & Co.”


1890: “Agriculture made little headway [on Santa Cruz Island], but the sheep flourished. By 1890 there were more than 50,000… More than 50,000 sheep were rounded-up in 1890. It was the custom then, as now, to transport scores of riders and shearers from the mainland for 40 or 50 days annually. When sheep and cattle were shipped across the channel, the sheep were lightered in, but the cattle were cast overboard and forced to swim ashore. While the sheep increased numerically, the quality of the wool had declined in inverse proportion, until the island product was in bad repute with all wool markets. By 1937, the bands of sheep were cut down to 12,000, and are now [1939] being built up again with introduction of superior stock. With a great deal of work, a small quantity of wool has been produced which last year won a cup as the finest out of Southern California.” [O’Neil Owen H. History of Santa Barbara County 1930 p. 367]


January 1, 1890 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived from Santa Cruz Island yesterday with a load of 150 sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


May 16, 1890 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived yesterday from Santa Cruz Island with 150 sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


June 7, 1890 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived from Santa Cruz Island yesterday morning with 145 sheep for Sherman & Ealand and Fisher & Co.”


September 24, 1890 [LAT]: “Santa Barbara Wool...That a woolen mill could be made to pay in Santa Barbara is apparent. This county is a great wool-raising district. On the Island of Santa Rosa there are 60,000 sheep; on Santa Cruz, 35,000; on San Miguel, 5,000; on Anacapa, 3,000; on the great San Julian ranch, 30,000; besides innumerable smaller flocks in Santa Barbara and Ventura counties. These figures are from the County Assessor's books, and are probably underestimates.”


October 29, 1890 [SBDI]: “Santa Cruz Island spring lamb at California Market. I. K. Fisher & Co. Telephone 21.”


November 16, 1890 [SBMP]: “Santa Cruz Island spring lamb at California Market. I. K. Fisher & Co. Telephone 21.”


November 21, 1890 [SBMP]: “Santa Cruz Island spring lamb at California Market. I. K. Fisher & Company. Telephone 21.”


November 19, 1890 [SBMP]: “The steamer Bonita touched at the wharf yesterday afternoon and took on board Lawrence More and went to Santa Cruz Island for a load of sheep.”


December 6, 1890 [SBMP]: “The steamer Bonita came in port Thursday night to avoid the storm. She laid at the wharf until yesterday when she went to Santa Cruz Island to get a cargo of sheep to take to San Francisco.”


May 2, 1891 [SBMP]: “…The Channel Islands are four in number, Anacapa, San Miguel, Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz. They are used mostly for sheep raising. Santa Cruz Island is being owned by a French syndicate devoted to that occupation…”


May 6, 1891 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived yesterday from Santa Cruz Island with a party of sheep shearers.”


June 7, 1891 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom sailed yesterday for Santa Cruz Island. On her last trip to this city Friday, she brought 154 sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


July 7, 1891 [SBDI]: “Santa Cruz Island spring lamb at California Market. I. K. Fisher & Co. Telephone 21.”


August 5, 1891 [SBMP]: “The two Chinamen arrested at Santa Cruz Island for stealing sheep were fined $70 yesterday by Judge Crane.”


August 8, 1891 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom left for Santa Cruz Island yesterday with several Chinamen, who had been brought from the island charged with sheep stealing.”


September 22, 1891 [SBMP]: “The Star of Freedom sailed yesterday for Santa Cruz Island with a number of sheep shearers.”


March 28, 1892 [LAT/SB]: “The schooner Star of Freedom, Captain J. G. Prescott, sailed for Santa Cruz Island yesterday morning, taking thirty-five sheep shearers.”


October 25, 1892 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom has returned from Santa Cruz Island with fifty or sixty sheep shearers.”


March 27, 1892 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom sailed for Santa Cruz Island with a party of shearers.”


December 21, 1892 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom with Captain Frank Thompson, brought over a number of the sheep shearers who have been employed during the past season on Santa Cruz Island.”


March 18, 1893 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived in the harbor yesterday morning. She sails again tonight for Santa Cruz Island and returns about the 24th for the sheep shearers.”


March 24, 1893 [SBMP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom arrived in the harbor yesterday and sails again this morning for the islands with 60 sheep shearers. The present shearing promises to be a good one.”


March 26, 1893 [LAT/SB]: “The schooner Star of Freedom sailed for Santa Cruz Island Saturday morning, carrying sixty sheep shearers to work upon the island.”


April 14, 1891 [DAC]: “Importations. Per Bonita. From Santa Cruz Island. 29 bundles dry pelts, 10 bundles fox skins, 10 hides, 1 bale wool.”


July 10, 1893 [SBDI]: “The steam schooner Santa Cruz arrived this morning from Santa Cruz Island with 150 sheep.”


July 11, 1893 [SBDI]: “The consignment of sheep brought over from the island yesterday in the steamer Santa Cruz was for Sherman & Ealand.”


July 12, 1893 [LAT/SB]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island Sunday night with 160 sheep on beard.”


July 18, 1893 [SBDI]: “The gasoline steamer Santa Cruz arrived this morning from the island with sheep.”


August 16, 1893 [SBDI]: “The Santa Cruz naptha boat arrived from the island yesterday with a lot of sheep for Sherman & Ealand. One of the animals got overboard and made things quite lively, for a few moments, to get the critter out again.”


December 4, 1893 [SBDI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz left for the island Saturday with about fifty sheep shearers.”


May 3, 1894 [SBDI]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz came in last night with a party of fifty sheep shearers.”


May 3, 1894 [SBMP]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz brought fifty sheep shearers over from Santa Cruz Island yesterday where they were at work for the past month.”


May 4, 1894 [SBDI]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz landed 150 sheep at the wharf yesterday for Sherman & Ealand.”


May 26, 1894 [SBMP]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz brought over 157 head of sheep for Sherman & Ealand yesterday from Santa Cruz Island.”


May 26, 1894 [SBDI]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz arrived from the island yesterday with over 100 sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


June 1, 1894 [SBDI]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz arrived from the islands yesterday with a cargo of sheep.”


June 30, 1894 [SBDI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived yesterday from Santa Cruz Island with 200 sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


July 12, 1894 [SBDI]: “The gasoline schooner, Santa Cruz, returned from the island this afternoon with a load of sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


July 13, 1894 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz came in from Santa Cruz Island yesterday with a 110 sheep for Sherman & Ealand. Mr. Sherman came in with the load.”


July 14, 1894 [LAT/SB]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz came in yesterday from Santa Cruz Island with a cargo of sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


July 28, 1894 [SBDI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz came in last night from the islands with 149 sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


September 26, 1894 [SBDI]: “The steamer Bonita was expected to stop at Santa Cruz Island today on her way north, to take on a cargo of wool and several barrels of wine.”


May 25, 1895 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived last night from Santa Cruz Island with 191 sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


March 20, 1896 [SBDN]: “Justinian Caire is over from Santa Cruz Island and is a guest at the Raffour House. Mr. Caire will take 40 sheep shearers over to Santa Cruz tomorrow and shearing will commence at once.”


April 6, 1896 [SBDI]: “The sheep shearers and farm hands from Santa Cruz Island to the number of 42 arrived yesterday in order to be on hand early on election day.”


July 9, 1896 [SFCall]: “Importations. Per Bonita — Santa Cruz Island — 1138 sheep.”


August 12, 1896 [LAT/SB]: “H. G. Goodall of San Francisco was visiting friends here today. He came down on the steamer Bonita with Captain George Conway for an outing on Santa Cruz Island. The Bonita is down for a cargo of wool from the islands…”


April 28, 1898 [LAT/Red]: “Shipments of 18,000 sheep and 1000 cattle from Santa Cruz Island to points in Arizona and Nebraska are being made through this port.”


April 30, 1898 [LAT/SB]: “The steamer Santa Cruz arrived yesterday afternoon from the Channel Islands with 2000 sheep for A. L. Hobson of Ventura.”


May 21, 1898 [SBMP]: “The steamer Santa Cruz arrived from the island yesterday with 240 head of cattle and 224 sheep. She left for the return trip at midnight.”


February 5, 1899 [LAT]: “Reports from the big ranches on the islands across the channel are still favorable. The rainfall there was greater than on the mainland…On Santa Cruz feed has been very good all summer, considering the dry season, and about fifty thousand sheep were carried through…”


April 15, 1899 [SBMP]: “The gasoline launch Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island last night and left this morning for the same place with forty sheep shearers.”


April 29, 1899 [SBMP]: “The steamer Coos Bay stopped at Santa Cruz Island on her trip north last Wednesday and took aboard 150 sacks of wool for exportation.”


May 13, 1899 [SBMP]: “The sheep-shearing season is over at Santa Cruz Island, 45 men who have been engaged in the work for some weeks past returning home Thursday night.”


June 1899: “This range is so steep and brushy that even with twenty experienced vaqueros only about one half of the sheep occupying it are ever shorn, and there are thousands of these animals roaming around with one, two or three years’ fleece on their backs…” » Mailliard, Joseph Spring Notes on the Birds of Santa Cruz Island, Cal. April, 1898 in Condor 1:3 (41-45) May-June 1899.


July 29, 1899 [LAT/SB]: “C. E. Sherman returned at noon today from Santa Cruz Island, bringing over a cargo of 250 sheep. He says that the 35,000 sheep on this island, as well as the thousands on the other Channel Islands, are in the very best possible condition. Of the 80,000 to 100,000 sheep in the county, these seem to be in the very best shape.”


February 10, 1900 [SBDI]: “Mr. C. E. Sherman purchased 3000 head of sheep last night from Mr. Caire of the Santa Cruz Island.”


February 15, 1900 [SBDI]: “Mr. C. E. Sherman left for Gaviota this morning to look after his interests at that place.”


March 21, 1900 [SBDI]: ”Mr. C. E. Sherman left last night for Santa Cruz Island. He will bring back a number of sheep.”


March 29, 1900 [SBDI]: “Forty sheep shearers left for Santa Cruz Island this morning and will begin work on their arrival there.”


March 29, 1900 [SBDI]: ”Mr. C. E. Sherman left this morning for Santa Cruz Island to purchase sheep for the market.”


March 30, 1900 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz left for Santa Cruz Island yesterday with 40 or 50 sheep shearers.”


April 28, 1900 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island yesterday, bringing over 250 head of sheep.”


May 3, 1900 [SBWP]: “From the Islands—The schooner Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island yesterday, bringing over 250 head of sheep.”


May 11, 1900 [SBDI]: “Forty sheep shearers returned from Santa Cruz Island last night. Ten came over from Santa Rosa.”


May 17, 1900 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz left for Santa Cruz Island yesterday, taking over a gang of sheep shearers.”


November 19, 1890 [SBMP]: “The steamer Bonita touched at the wharf yesterday afternoon and took on board Lawrence More and went to Santa Cruz Island for a load of sheep.”


February 22, 1901 [SBMP]: “Los Angeles and Santa Barbara butchers have purchased 1700 sheep from Santa Cruz Island. The freight steamer will deliver them next week. The sheep are in prime condition owing to the excellent feed.”


February 22, 1901 [LAT/SB]: “A lot of sheep amounting to 1700 head, the product of Santa Cruz Island, are to be conveyed from the island by the steamer Santa Cruz to Los Angeles and Santa Barbara markets.”


April 10, 1901 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz came in last night with a cargo of wool.”


April 23, 1901 [SBMP]: “A cargo of sheep arrived from Santa Cruz Island yesterday for Sherman & Ealand.”


May 9, 190l [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, Captain Maggiolo, sailed yesterday with a number of sheep shearers for the J. Caire estate. The shearers' union finally made its peace with the foreman, Carlo Erbetti, and returned to work.”


May 9, 1901 [LAT/SB]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz left this morning for the island with a band of sheep shearers aboard, after a number of difficulties between the men and their employers had been patched up. Some weeks ago the shearers, in the employ of Carlo Erbetti, foreman of the J. Caire estate, formed the ‘Santa Cruz Shearers Union,’ to protest against their treatment. They claimed that they were hired by Erbetti at 50 cents per day in excess of regular shearing wages, and $1 per day for working as vaqueros, and doing general work on the ranch. When they were taken to the island, however, they were compelled to sweep the corrals, and perform other menial duties which they deemed out of the contract, and were paid but 50 cents per day. Captain Maggiolo of the schooner Santa Cruz waited several days this week for the two factions to get things adjusted, and was able to get off this morning with a full cargo of men and supplies.”


May 15, 1902 [SBMP]: “All three of the island schooners were in port yesterday. The Santa Cruz brought a party of sheep shearers from Santa Cruz Island, the Mildred E brought sheep from Santa Rosa Island, and the Restless also brought a cargo of sheep from San Miguel Island.”


July 26, 1902 [LAT/SB]: “The schooner Mildred E', which has been in port two months with a cargo of Santa Cruz Island wool, has received orders to ship a crew and be in readiness to sail at short notice. The wool has been sold to San Francisco dealers.”


June 2, 1903 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz will arrive today with the sheep shearers from the island, the season's clippings having been completed. The wool crop is unusually heavy and of the best quality, being very clean and free from grit owing to the moist weather.”


June 7, 1903 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived from the island yesterday with a cargo of 215 sheep for Sherman & Ealand.”


July 10, 1903 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, belonging to the Santa Cruz Island Company, arrived in port yesterday morning with a cargo of sheep from the island.”


April 8, 1904 [SBI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island this morning and will sail tonight on her return trip with thirty-five sheep shearers on board. The sheep-shearing season is about to commence on Santa Cruz and it is expected that it will continue for about forty-five days.”


April 12, 1904 [SBI]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz sailed for Santa Cruz Island this morning with a score of sheep shearers to augment the force already at work on the annual clip at the island.”


April 15, 1904 [SBI]: “This morning the power schooner Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island with a cargo of fat sheep for the local butchers.”


May 5, 1904 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz came into port yesterday morning with a cargo of sheep for William Ealand after a rough trip across the channel.”


August 18, 1904 [SBMP]: “Happenings at Pelican Bay. Quite a fleet of vessels anchored in the bay Tuesday. The steamer Pasadena, with 300 head of island sheep on board bound for San Francisco, the island schooner Santa Cruz, yacht Pride, launch Fortuna and sloop Alpha from San Pedro... The sheep shearing campaign is now in full blast and 69 vaqueros came into Scorpion Ranch with 4,000 head of sheep taken from the Cerritos at Coches Prietos. The shearing lasts for about four weeks, when upwards of 45,000 sheep are relieved of their superfluous clothing.”


March 24, 1905 [OC]: “A band of twenty sheep shearers sailed for Santa Cruz Island last week from Santa Barbara to begin the work of shearing the large flock of sheep on the island.”


April 5, 1905 [SBMP]: “The island boat Santa Cruz left for Santa Cruz Island yesterday at noon, having on board a crew of sheep-shearers and supplies for the sheep-shearing camps reared on the island for the gathering of the season's crop of wool.”


April 30, 1905 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz returned yesterday from Santa Cruz Island with a cargo of sheep for local butchers.”


May 29, 1905 [SBMP]: “Sheep shearers return. The schooner Santa Cruz, Captain James Prescott, came in from Prisoners’ Harbor at 1 o’clock yesterday afternoon and discharged a crew of 20 sheep shearers, who have been employed on the island for several weeks. The boat also brought over 120 sheep for Sherman’s meat markets, and unloaded several barrels of wine for the local trade.”


June 20, 1905 [SBMP]: “Gem of island is Santa Cruz... Mr. Lowe was piloted to the various points of interest on the island of Santa Cruz by Captain Merry of the Vishnu, the trip across the channel being made last Saturday and the entire day of Sunday being given to the examination of the various points of greater interest... The beds of the mountain streams are lined in places with a jungle that cannot be passed except by the island sheep...”


July 9, 1905 [SBMP]: “The lumber steamer Pasadena recently loaded a cargo of sheep at Prisoners’ Harbor, Santa Cruz Island for Eureka, Humboldt County. The lumber vessels bringing the product of the northern mills to the southern ports usually return under ballast, and the shipment of sheep in such large quantities from the Santa Barbara island is quite out of the ordinary.”


April 20, 1906 [SBI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island last evening with a load of sheep for William Ealand, proprietor of the State Street market. She will take on a quantity of supplies for the island and will probably sail for her home harbor some time tomorrow.”


May 9, 1906 [SBI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived last night from the island with a cargo of sheep for the State Street market. There were 250 sheep in the band and they were in fine condition when they landed at the Commercial wharf. Charles Ealand, who is representing his father, William Ealand, in the management of the State Street market during the absence of the latter in Los Angeles, stated today that the sheep that have been brought in from Santa Cruz Island this season have been the best that have been shipped from the island in several years, the feed being particularly good at this season. Mr. Ealand only recently returned from the island, where he went on a business trip, and states that the shearing of sheep has nearly been completed. About twenty-five shearers have been constantly engaged for the past three weeks, and it is probable that the big job will have been completed within ten days. It is estimated that about 40,000 sheep on the island will be denuded of their wool during the present clipping period.”


May 14, 1906 [SBI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island shortly before noon today for supplies, bringing a small quantity of wine and several head of sheep for local dealers. A few sheep shearers, who have been engaged at the island for several days past and whose services had come to an end, arrived on the schooner. It was stated by the captain of the boat that the work of shearing the sheep will have been completed and that fully 40,000 sheep will have been subjected to the clippers before the job had been finished.”


May 17, 1906 [SBI]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz, which has been in port for the past few days, left this afternoon for Prisoners’ Harbor, Santa Cruz Island, with supplies. She will return on Saturday of this week with between 200 and 300 head of sheep for the State Street market. Charles Ealand left on the boat for the purpose of selecting the sheep.”


May 26, 1906 [SBI]: “The power launch Santa Cruz is expected to arrive from Santa Cruz Island tonight or tomorrow morning with a cargo of sheep. The Santa Cruz sailed for the island with a quantity of supplies, with Captain Prescott in charge, on Thursday last. It is expected that she will be able to discharge her cargo of livestock in time to leave for the island with more supplies on Monday afternoon.”


May 29, 1906 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, Captain James Prescott, came in from Prisoners’ Harbor at 10 o’clock yesterday afternoon and discharged a crew of 20 sheep shearers who have been employed on the island for several weeks. The boat also brought over 120 sheep for Sherman’s meat markets, and unloaded several barrels of wine for the local trade.”


June 10, 1906 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner came in port yesterday from Prisoners' Harbor in charge of Captain James Prescott. She carried 140 sheep for William [? Charles] Sherman's market, and a cargo of wine for the local trade.”


June 20, 1906 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner brought over 179 head of sheep from Santa Cruz Island for Sherman's meat market. The boat will return to Prisoners' Harbor tomorrow.”


June 24, 1906 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner came in from Prisoners' Harbor yesterday morning with over 100 head of sheep. Large numbers of sheep have been brought from Santa Cruz Island this month for Sherman's meat market. The pasturage on the island this year has been very good and the sheep are in fine condition.”


June 26, 1906 [SBI]: “For several weeks past there has been a brisk demand from outside points for sheep raised on the Santa Barbara Channel Islands and frequent shipments have been made to Los Angeles and other points in the southern part of the state. Today William Ealand, proprietor of the State Street Market, who has a contract with the owners of Santa Cruz Island for the delivery of 5000 head on the mainland as rapidly as they can be shipped across the channel, forwarded a carload of sheep to the Cudahay Company of Los Angeles, and many more carloads are to follow to the same customers within the next few days. The island sheep this year area in exceptionally fine condition and a favorable shading in the market price is being received from outside wholesalers.”


June 28, 1906 [SBI]: “The island schooner Santa Cruz, which arrived from Santa Cruz Island yesterday, Captain Prescott in charge, with 250 head of sheep for William Ealand of this city, will sail for Prisoners’ Harbor tomorrow morning, and will take on another cargo of sheep for the local market and for shipment to Los Angeles. Captain Prescott stated today that it was expected that the schooner would be back to the mainland again early Friday morning. The boat will continue to make trips across the channel until all of the sheep that Mr. Ealand recently purchased from the island company shall have been delivered.”


June 28, 1906 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz came in from Prisoners' Harbor yesterday afternoon with 250 head of sheep for William Ealand of this city. Mr. Ealand has a contract with the island sheep men for 5000 head of sheep that are being delivered as fast as possible, the island schooner making frequent trips with several hundred head to the cargo.”


June 30, 1906 [SBI]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island at 1 o’clock this afternoon with a cargo of sheep for William Ealand, proprietor of the State Street market. The sheep were being unloaded during the afternoon and the schooner will probably be able to leave for the island this evening or early tomorrow morning. Nearly all of the sheep brought to the mainland today will be shipped to Los Angeles to fill a part of a contract that Mr. Ealand recently entered into with the Cudahy Packing Company of that city.”


July 1, 1906 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner came in from Prisoners' Harbor yesterday with a cargo of sheep.”


July 11, 1906 [SBI]: “The island schooner Santa Cruz, which arrived from Prisoners’ Harbor a few days ago with a cargo of sheep for William Ealand of this city, will sail for the island late this afternoon, in charge of Captain Prescott, and will return with another load of sheep within a few days. Today the schooner was taking on a quantity of supplies for the various camps on the island.”


July 13, 1906 [SBI]: “The steam schooner Santa Cruz, which arrived in port several days ago with a cargo of sheep for shipment to Los Angeles, and which has been in port awaiting supplies, sailed yesterday afternoon for Santa Cruz Island and will return within a couple of days with another consignment.”


July 17, 1906 [SBMP]: “The steam schooner Santa Cruz arrived in port yesterday and brought over 40 head of sheep for William Ealand's market. The Santa Cruz will return to the islands today for more wine and mutton.”


July 21, 1906 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner is expected in port this morning with a cargo of native wine and live sheep. Wine and sheep are being brought over as fast as they can be loaded at Prisoners Harbor. The wine is sent north to San Francisco and the sheep are delivered to William Ealand of this city.”


July 28, 1906 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner came over from Prisoners' Harbor yesterday morning and was in port by 4 o'clock with a cargo of wine and sheep. The sheep are delivered to William Ealand's meat market.”


August 3, 1906 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz came over from Santa Cruz Island yesterday afternoon and discharged a cargo of sheep at Stearn’s Wharf. The sheep were delivered to William Ealand of this city.”


August 25, 1906 [SBI]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island today with a cargo of sheep for the Ealand Packing Company of this city. It is expected that she will return to Prisoners’ Harbor tomorrow, after taking on supplies for the island camps.”


August 29, 1906 [SBI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, which arrived from Santa Cruz Island yesterday with a cargo of sheep for the Ealand Packing Company, was preparing to return to Prisoners’ Harbor this afternoon. Today she took on fifty puncheons of 175 gallons capacity each, which had been returned from San Francisco, to which point they had been shipped filled with wine.”


September 4, 1906 [SBI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz is expected to arrive from Santa Cruz Island late this afternoon or tomorrow morning with another cargo of sheep. She will also bring several puncheons of wine from the island warehouse. Supplies for the island camps will be taken to Prisoners’ Harbor on the return trip.”


September 5, 1906 [SBI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, which was expected to have arrived at this port from Prisoners’ Harbor, Santa Cruz Island, a couple of days ago with a cargo of sheep, has not yet put in an appearance. By those who are particularly interested in the arrival of the boat it is believed that the failure of the schooner to arrive here on stated time has been due to difficulties in loading the boat on the other side of the channel.”


September 19, 1906 [SBI]: “Captain James G. Prescott of the schooner Santa Cruz arrived in the harbor from Santa Cruz Island last night and today is unloading a cargo of wine... Contrary to its usual rule, the company will not shear its sheep this fall, there being a greater demand in the market for a longer and finer fleece than can be grown with two shearings in a twelve month. The Santa Cruz will remain in the harbor until Friday.”


November 23, 1906 [SBMP]: “Island trade in full swing. Cattle shipments—wine, walnuts, almonds and other products being marketed. Trade with the islands is in full swing at the present time, notwithstanding the rough weather… The Santa Cruz Island schooner came in yesterday with a cargo of wine, walnuts and almonds, products of the island ranches, and returned in the afternoon for a cargo of sheep…”


April 16, 1907 [SBMP]: The launch Santa Cruz left yesterday afternoon with a company of workmen aboard for Scorpion Harbor at the east end of the island. They will be employed for the next week or two fixing the corrals and sheds and making ready generally for sheep shearing operations.”


April 26, 1907 [SBI]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz arrived from the island last evening with 200 sheep for the Ealand meat market.”


May 1, 1907 [SBMP]: “The launch Peerless, Captain Vasquez, arrived yesterday from Prisoners' Harbor, Santa Cruz Island, bringing over Joe Ruiz, whose ankle was broken by a horse falling with him while chasing wild sheep.”


May 22, 1907 [SBI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, which plies between this port and the island, came in this morning with a cargo of wine for San Francisco shipment. It also had aboard a small band of sheep for local butchers.”


May 24, 1907 [SBMP]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz was in from the island yesterday with a cargo of about twenty tons of wool, a small portion of the spring clip. The Santa Cruz will be engaged in the wool clip carrying trade for some time.”


May 30, 1907 [SBMP]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz came in from the island Tuesday evening with a cargo of wool.”


May 31, 1907 [SBI]: “A large number of sheep, amounting to 250 in all, were brought from Santa Cruz Island Wednesday afternoon for the Ealand Market. They had been sheared just before they voyage and arrived in fine shape. The task of unloading the cargo taxed the ingenuity of the crew and those assisting it.”


June 29, 1907 [SBI]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz arrived this morning from the islands with 250 head of sheep for the State Street market.”


August 17, 1907 [SBMP]: “Captain J. G. Prescott, who ever since 1894 has been skipper and chief engineer of the steam schooner Santa Cruz, has severed his connection with the island company owing to the refusal of the Justinian Caire Company to recognize the increased cost of living and the advance in wages necessitated all along the line… The Santa Cruz has been lying on this account at anchor with an idle crew ever since the middle of last month. There are hundreds of head of mutton undelivered, and thousands gallons of wine waiting to be transported to the mainland. The business of the island is at a standstill.”


August 28, 1907 [SBMP]: “The auxiliary schooner Santa Cruz arrived yesterday from the island in command of Captain T. H. Merry with 250 sheep for the local market.”


November, 1907 [C. B. Linton]: “Santa Cruz Island is very mountainous, with wide valleys intervening. There are perhaps 40,000 sheep on the island, a few cattle, immense barley fields and grape vineyards, several ranches, a large winery, and some 100 men employed during the harvesting season...”


May 1908: “Santa Cruz Island is very mountainous with wide valleys intervening. There are perhaps 40,000 sheep on the island, a few cattle, immense barley fields and grape vineyards, several ranches, a large winery, and some 100 men employed during the harvesting season. It was with the kind permission of Mr. Fred M. [F.] Caire, owner of the island, that I was enabled to carry on the observations herein chronicled...” [Linton, Clarence B. Notes from Santa Cruz Island in Condor, May 1908, p, 125].


May 29, 1908 [SBI]: “…The Santa Cruz brought over several ranch hands and sheep shearers.”


August 18, 1908 [SPDN]: “Several boat loads of sheep will be shipped to Santa Barbara next month [from Santa Cruz Island]. The large schooner Santa Rosa, owned by the Santa Rosa Island Company, will be chartered for this purpose.”


September 16, 1908 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island boat tied up to the wharf yesterday with a cargo of wool and the wine that makes the island famous. This year's clip of wool is of fine quality, and the price is on the mend.”


September 19, 1908 [SBI]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz arrived today with the second cargo to be brought from Santa Cruz Island within a week. On board were 100 bags of wool, with 300 pounds in each bag, and a quantity of wine.”


October 8, 1908 [SBI]: “Five thousand fence posts were left at Santa Cruz Island this week by a lumber schooner which arrived here yesterday. Although the entire island is one immense ranch, the owners have fenced off large sections of it, and even then it is said that thousands of sheep are never brought in at shearing time, being hidden in some of the numerous canyons and depressions which break the surface of the island.”


April 7, 1909 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz schooner came in yesterday and unloaded 210 head of sheep, which were sold to Santa Barbara parties.”


August 14, 1909 [SBI]: “Fred F. Caire, of San Francisco, who with other members of the Caire family hold the title to Santa Cruz, largest of the Santa Barbara group of islands, announced today that it may be necessary to establish a patrol along the shores of the island and eject all campers who do not hold permits from the family of the management… Several boatloads of sheep will be shipped to Santa Barbara next month. The large schooner, Santa Rosa, owned by the Santa Rosa Island Company, will be chartered for this purpose…”


October 23, 1909 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner discharged a cargo of 220 head of sheep yesterday at Stearn’s Wharf. The sheep have been purchased by Ealand Packing Company. The sheep from Santa Cruz Island are considered desirable stock on account of being free from all disease.”


November 9, 1909 [SBMP]: “All the working men, the sheep shearers and the vaqueros on Santa Cruz Island went on a strike Sunday and came to this city in a body, yesterday on the launch Santa Cruz with Captain George Nidever. This is the busy season on the island. For nearly a month crews have been working from 4 o'clock in the morning until 5 o'clock in the evening, with only two holidays during this time; and they declared that they were work out and needed a rest. They told their foreman, Nini Ayala, they did not want to work on Sunday. Superintendent Arabeli objected to the loss of time and told the men if they did not want to work they could leave, which they did. Eighteen men came over. They included nearly all the men in this locality who understood sheep shearing, although there are a few others who will probably be recruited and with others from Ventura and other places the work will go on.”


January 13, 1910 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner, Captain George Nidever, came in from the island yesterday with a cargo of 13,000 pounds of the fall wool clip. A cargo brought in Tuesday amounted to 25,000 pounds. Captain Nidever stated that there were several cargoes yet to be brought over. The fall clip is the smaller one of the year and the spring shearing is expected to double the present output.”


January 22, 1910 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner was in yesterday with 15 bags of wool, the last of the fall clip. This makes a total of about one third of the amount that was brought over the last year, due to the fact that a strike of sheep shearers last autumn necessarily caused the sheep owners to allow the herds to go with the spring shearing with a full coat.”


April 2, 1910 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner, Captain Nidever, came in yesterday from the island with a cargo of sheep for the Ealand Packing Company.”


April 5, 1910 [SBI]: “The last schooner load of a large shipment of sheep to the Ealand Packing Company arrived yesterday from Santa Cruz Island and were unloaded at the side of the commercial wharf. The animals created excitement by breaking through a cordon of small boys onto the lumber wharf, where Wharfinger Lewis was replacing the planking. A large ram headed straight for a big hole in the wharf and came within a few feet of falling into the ocean before he was headed off.”


April 23, 1910 [SBI]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz is expected today with a load of sheep, and will leave Monday morning with Mr. Avery, who will take over a camp outfit and a force of cement then and carpenters...”


October 25, 1910 [SBI]: “The power schooner Santa Rosa arrived here this morning with a cargo of 120 sacks of wool from Santa Cruz Island, each sack weighing 350 pounds. She will make several other trips bringing over 500 sacks by Sunday.”


October 29, 1910 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner is transporting this year’s clip of wool from Prisoners’ Harbor to Santa Barbara. The shipments now will aggregate over 500 bags more than 100 tons. The schooner brings about 25 tons each trip.”


November 7, 1910 [SBI]: “The Santa Cruz brought 77 sacks of wool from Santa Cruz Island Sunday morning and will make another trip Tuesday.”


January 20, 1911 [SBMP]: “According to reports brought yesterday from the Channel Islands, they failed to receive any benefits from the recent rains that saved the season for the mainland farmers and cattlemen. The rainfall on Santa Rosa Island was less than half an inch; while about a quarter of an inch was reported on Santa Cruz, with scarcely none on the west end. These reports were brought over by Captains Nidever and Libby of island boats. While there has been nothing heard from San Miguel Island, which is the most westerly of the group, it is supposed that the same condition prevails there… The situation will be serious if there is no rain soon on these islands… On San Miguel there are several thousand sheep, and an even greater number on Santa Cruz…”


April 23, 1911 [SBMP]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz left yesterday for the island of that name. On her was A. J. Caire, one of the owners of the island. He was accompanied by an employee of the Ealand Packing Company, and on the return, a cargo of about 200 sheep, which will be selected by Mr. Caire, will be brought over.”


May 27, 1911 [SBI]: “With nearly 150 sheep for the Gehl Packing company on board, the schooner Santa Cruz arrived from that island yesterday afternoon.”


October 4, 1911 [SBMP]: “Cattle pens are being arranged at the wharf for the accommodation of four cargoes of cattle and sheep from Santa Cruz Island, consigned to the Gehl Packing company.”


October 11, 1911 [SBMP]: “The island schooner Santa Cruz came over yesterday with the Caire family and relatives, who immediately left by train for San Francisco. The Santa Cruz also had aboard 100 sheep for Santa Barbara. She sailed again this morning with a crew of twenty men to handle the grape crop on the island and work in the winery.”


November 3, 1911 [SBI]: “The island schooner Santa Cruz arrived here last night with 212 sheep for Santa Barbara. She will lay over a day or two before she returns to the island.”


November 14, 1911 [SBMP]: “The powerboat Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island yesterday with 227 head of sheep for the Gehl Packing Company. On its next trip it is expected that the Santa Cruz will bring twelve barrels of wine. The present capacity of the winery on the island is being taxed. There have so far been only small shipments of wine, so the coming one will be the most important this season. It is said that the crop of the vineyards on the island this year will yield about 120,000 gallons of wine, the greatest in the history of the industry.”


January 11, 1912 [SBMP]: “Overstock of island sheep cause worry. Good rains would restore confidence in ability to handle herds. Two representatives of the Caire estate are in Santa Barbara, having been sent here by the administrators of the estate to investigate the report that thousands of sheep are dying on Santa Cruz Island. The men will go to the island as soon as possible to make an investigation of conditions. The Caire estate has more than 100,000 sheep on the island, and the recent lack of rain is said to be the cause for the sheep suffering. A ship captain who recently returned from Santa Cruz Island reported that conditions were deplorable and that fully 30,000 sheep were doomed. The sheep have very little grazing now, and it was reported dead sheep were to be seen in many places. It was reported that rain would offer little relief, in that it would cause what little grazing remained to rot, and it would be sometime before fresh grass would appear. As a result, the sheep would be badly off rain or no rain...”


January 13, 1912 [SBMP]: “W. E. Staunton and R. H. Dunn of San Francisco, who are interested in extensive sheep raising in Nevada, returned yesterday from Santa Cruz Island where they went with a view of purchasing a large number of sheep belonging to the Caire estate. They are at the Arlington, but will leave today for the north. Because of the condition of the sheep, both Staunton and Dunn have concluded not to purchase at this time. They state the report was exaggerated in regard to the actual condition of the sheep, and that grazing was not so low the animals will die off by the thousands. There will be some loss. While the sheep are thin, they are healthy and hardy. Their condition is, however, such that they would not be able to stand being transported any considerable distance. Had they proved satisfactory, the plan was to move them to Nevada ranges.”


January 13, 1912 [SBI]: “Island sheep are not dying by hundreds. Nevada men return from inspection trip to Santa Cruz. The report that 10,000 sheep are dying and in danger of complete extermination because of drought on Santa Cruz Island was flatly contradicted this morning by two of the state of Nevada’s most extensive and best known flockmasters, R. Harry Dunn and Assemblyman W. E. Staunton, who crossed the channel from Santa Cruz on the island schooner last evening and left this morning for San Francisco… Mr. Dunn and Mr. Staunton are reported to have a deal on with the Caires for all of the sheep on the island, and if it is consummated the entire flock would be shipped by way of San Francisco to ranges is Nevada. Lumber carriers, returning northward, returning northward being used for transportation. It is estimated that there are about 50,000 sheep on Santa Cruz Island…”


February 12, 1912 [SBI]: “Captain Christ left this afternoon in his launch Comet for Santa Cruz Island where he will get probably the last load of crawfish to be brought in before the season closes at midnight on the 14th day of February. Captain Christ reports that the sheep on the south side of the Santa Cruz Island are dieing fast. The cattle he says are faring better than the sheep, but they are also very poor.”


May 19, 1912 [SBMP]: “55,000 sheep on island to be sold to Nevada ranchmen. Caires will clean their big trans-channel ranch of wool producers. Shipments will be made via Santa Barbara. Between $150,000 and $200,000 involved in deal. Sheep men from many points gather—go to island. The sale has just been consummated of 55,000 sheep now grazing on Santa Cruz Island. Yesterday a number of ranchmen from various parts of the states arrived here, and will be met today by representatives of the Caire estate, and taken to the island for the purpose of completing the details for the gigantic negotiations—it being probably the largest sale of livestock ever effected in this county. The figures will run, probably between $155,000 and $200,000. The sheep will be divided between the markets and ranches in Nevada. The animals in condition for slaughter will be sold to packing companies, and the balance of the flocks will be shipped directly to Nevada. All of them will be brought first to Santa Barbara. The spring shearing will be completed before the sheep are moved. None of the Caires being here yesterday, it was impossible to gain accurate information as to the intentions of the owners of the island, but it is assumed that they will follow the example of Vail & Vickers who own Santa Rosa Island and devote their ranges to cattle.”


May 20, 1912 [SBI]: “Fifty-five thousand sheep grazing on Santa Cruz Island have been sold to Nevada ranchers and markets for from $150,000 to $200,000. The sheep will not be taken from the island until the spring shearing has been completed. It is supposed that the Caires, owners of the island, will hereafter use the whole island for cattle raising.”


May 22, 1912 [SBMP]: “Rumors come from San Francisco, the home of the Caires who own Santa Cruz Island, that there may be important developments in store for their island domain, following the removal of the 55,000 sheep recently sold to various packing companies and ranchmen of this state and Nevada. Just what this pending development may be, no one in this city pretends to know. Some of the members of the Caire family may be here the latter part of the week, when the sheep buyers are expected to return from the island. The movement of sheep from the island will begin June 4th. The sheep will be brought here by the island schooner and then loaded on cars for shipment to various destinations. It is estimated that upwards of 200 cars will be required before the movement is completed. Just how many sheep are there on Santa Cruz Island no one knows. The roundup will be accomplished only with exceeding difficulty, owing to the severe topography of the island. It is commonly believed by those familiar with conditions there that the semi-annual shearing is never more than half complete, as the vaqueros declare it is impossible to find all of the animals. Now dogs will be taken to the island to assist in the hunt.”


May 29, 1912 [SBMP]: “Representatives of the Caire estate are now at Santa Cruz Island in connection with the recent sale of all the sheep on the island ranch, estimated at 55,000 head. The shipments by schooner to Santa Barbara and thence by rail to various coast and Nevada points will begin in about a week.”


May 31, 1912 [SBMP]: “Santa Cruz Island may become property of church. Interesting rumor offers explanation for sale of livestock... The big movement of sheep will begin within a few days. Instead of utilizing the island schooner, the purchaser of the livestock has arranged for a mammoth lighter, which will hold from 2500 to 3000 sheep. This will be towed across the channel by a powerful tug, and the sheep driven up the incline at the Santa Barbara wharf, and thence to cars at the Southern Pacific tracks. John Hendrickson, Salt Lake City, is one of the purchasers of the island flock. He has contracted for 10,000 head. Hendrickson visited the island this week, in company with W. H. Roche of San Francisco, through whom Hendrickson buys the animals. Roche, having purchased all the sheep on the island, being limited to a refusal of 5,000 for those out of condition. Roche also gets the wool, and for the first time the wool buyers of the country are entering into vigorous competition to secure a clip. Heretofore, one agency has handled the wool for the Caires, and as the clip is usually very clean, the monopoly has been considered a valuable one. Both Roche and Hendrickson report the sheep in better form than they had expected. There is but one disappointment, and that is as to the relative number of lambs. The failure of early rains is held responsible for a shortage in this respect...”


June 2, 1912 [SBMP]: “The first consignment of sheep from Santa Cruz Island, in the movement of 55,000 head recently sold by the Caire estate, is expected to reach here early this week.”


June 3, 1912 [SBI]: “The first of the 55,000 sheep recently sold by the Caire estate to a syndicate is expected to arrive here from Santa Cruz Island about the middle of this week. Other consignments will follow a short time later.”


June 4, 1912 [SBMP]: “The heavy fog that has enveloped the Santa Barbara mainland every night, has been almost continuous at the islands on the south side of the channel. The mist that has been so thick there that it has interfered seriously with preparations for the movement of the 55, 000 head of sheep recently sold to W. H. Roche of San Francisco. The fog has prevented the rounding up of the sheep, except under great difficulty; and the fleece of the animals has been so wet that shearing could not proceed with any degree of satisfaction. As a result, the shipment of sheep from this port will not begin today as had been expected. Perhaps by the latter part of the week the first consignment will be received. Very good facilities have been arranged for handling the thousands of animals. They will be driven from the deck of the vessel up the cattle chute to the wharf and thence to the pens at the shoe end of the railroad wharf, whence Southern Pacific will take them aboard cattle cars. Shipments will be made to various places north, south and as far east as Utah.”


June 5, 1912 [SBI]: “Arrangements for handling the 35,000 or more sheep to be shipped from the Santa Cruz Island here have been completed on the commercial wharf. The sheep will be landed on the east side of the wharf and driven from there down the small wharf where the railroad is, to a corral and special car loading run, which was completed on the beach Tuesday.”


June 6, 1912 [SBMP]: “The successful outcome of the recent attempt to picture the Santa Cruz Island seal in their native haunts and in the process of capture, has encouraged the Pacific Motion Picture Company to extend their effort, and to secure a general island film, perhaps 3000 feet in length, and including scenery as well as action... Arrangements have been made for the second cruise next week, at which time the camera will be able to catch sheep round-up and shearing in full operation. Wine making will also be illustrated. W. H. Clifford, the president of the company, who is also the scenario writer, will accompany the troop...”


June 7, 1912 [SBMP]: “The unusual fog that has enveloped the Santa Barbara coast during the past week will interfere seriously with the moving of 55,000 sheep from Santa Cruz Island. The animals have become so wet with the mist that shearing previous to the sale of the animals cannot be started with any degree of satisfaction. As a result of this unusual circumstance the removal of the sheep from the island will not begin for some days. The sheep have been grazing on Santa Cruz Island and are in excellent condition.”


June 8, 1912 [SBI]: “Four thousand sheep, the first shipment of many that will come from Santa Cruz Island, to be shipped to the range in Nevada, arrived here by schooner this afternoon at 1 o’clock.”


June 9, 1912 [SBMP]: “The first shipment of sheep from Santa Cruz Island to the mainland, under the recent sale of the entire stock, arrived yesterday, more than 1500 head being transported across the channel on the steam schooner Carlos. Here they were unloaded at the railroad wharf and driven to the Southern Pacific corrals alongside the spur track by the lumber yard. The shipments by rail may begin today. The sheep have been sold to various markets. Another cargo of sheep is expected today, and then there may be no more shipments until June 23rd, when the work will be taken up in earnest, and two trips a day may be made from Prisoners’ Harbor to Santa Barbara. From 40,000 to 50,000 head will be moved. There will also be large shipments of wool. The reports that the island might be bequeathed to a Catholic Church are not yet confirmed by the Caires, and others who claim to know say that the rumors are unfounded. That the present movement of personal property is in preparation for the subdivision of the island is another interesting report.”


June 10, 1912 [LAT]: “The depopulating of the extensive ranges of Santa Cruz Island has begun with the arrival here today of 3000 head of sheep, the initial shipments of the 50,000 animals sold by the Justinian Caire estate to W. H. Roche of San Francisco, and through Roche to various markets, as far east as the packing houses of Kansas City. The steam schooner, Carlos, ordinarily of the lumber trade, has been fitted with temporary pens and is being used for the transportation of the flocks across the channel. Several cargoes of fat sheep, it is understood, will be taken direct to San Pedro for the Los Angeles markets.”


June 11, 1912 [SBMP]: “The first cargo of Santa Cruz Island sheep, arriving here Saturday, went forward to Los Angeles yesterday by rail. There will be no trans-channel movement of sheep now until the 23rd, when it is expected that about 20,000 head will be rushed across, a steam schooner being chartered to make two trips a day.”


June 11, 1912 [SBI]: “Twenty thousand sheep will be rushed from the island to the mainland beginning June 23. A schooner has been chartered to make two trips a day. The shipment which reached here Saturday went forward to Los Angeles by rail Monday afternoon.”


June 13, 1912 [SBI]: “Rumors which have been circulating for some time that Santa Cruz Island would be turned over to the Catholic church some time in the future were denied by A. J. Caire, one of the owners, while on his way to San Francisco. ‘I heard the report,’ said Mr. Caire, ‘and immediately telegraphed my brother in Oakland to find out where it had originated. He answered saying that there was no truth in it and as I had never authorized such a statement you may rest assured there is nothing in it. The island is family property and we are not even trying to sell it.’ So far nearly 30,000 head of sheep have been brought to the mainland from the island, and another big shipment is expected June 23.”


June 23, 1912 [SBMP]: “Ten thousand sheep from Santa Cruz Island are expected in Santa Barbara today via steam schooner and Stearn’s Wharf. The schooner will make three trips across the channel, carrying 3000 or more sheep each trip. From the pier the animals will be driven along the railroad wharf to the corrals on the beach, east of the lumberyard. They will be shipped by rail to various destinations. Further shipments from the island are expected here within a few days.”


June 24, 1912 [SBI]: “Nearly 10,000 sheep were brought here Sunday from Santa Cruz Island and before the end of the week a total of 30,000 will have reached here. There will then be about 20,000 additional ones to bring over.”


June 25, 1912 [SBMP]: “The steam schooner Thomas L. Wand brought several thousand sheep from Santa Cruz Island to this port, Sunday and Monday, making two trips each day. The vessel left last evening for San Francisco. There are about 35,000 sheep still to be moved from the island, but no further shipments are expected for several days.”


June 26, 1912 [SBMP]: “The heaviest shipment of sheep from Santa Cruz Island will begin on July 8th when preparations will be completed for handling from 75 to 100 carloads.”


July 4, 1912 [SBMP]: “Further shipments of sheep from Santa Cruz Island will be made next week. About 15,000 head will be moved at that time, according to advices just received.”


July 6, 1912 [SBMP]: “Resumption in the movement of Santa Cruz Island sheep to the mainland will begin Monday or Tuesday according to advices received by President Frank Smith of Stearn's Wharf Company from W. H. Roche, who purchased the 50,000 head of sheep from the Caire estate. From 12,000 to 15,000 sheep will be transported across the channel next week.”


July 11, 1912 [SBMP]: “W. H. Roche, purchaser of the Santa Cruz Island sheep, returning yesterday from the island, reported that there would be no further shipments until July 17th, when a large number of animals would be moved.”


July 17, 1912 [SBMP]: “Beginning today, 75,000 sheep will be transported across the channel on the steam ship Carmel. The sheep come from Santa Cruz Island and will be landed here to be sent by rail to various parts.”


July 18, 1912 [SBMP]: “A rather aggravating situation has arisen in regard to the sheep that are corralled on Santa Cruz Island awaiting shipment to Santa Barbara. About 15,000 sheep are in the corral at the beach, and there were assurances that a large steamer would be up from San Pedro yesterday. The plan was to make two round trips, moving most of the sheep. The vessel did not appear and further inquiries brought the answer it could not come until today. Fifteen thousand sheep in a corral is an interesting problem. They must be fed and watered. In fact, this assumed the form of an emergency and a special load of hay was shipped over in the morning to care for the stock for the next twenty-four hours. The situation was a bit aggravating to Mrs. A. C. Caire, who arrived in Santa Barbara Tuesday, planning to take the ship over to the island to pass the remainder of the summer there with the family of her son, A. J. Caire. There were assurances yesterday afternoon that the shipment of sheep would be resumed today.”


July 20, 1912 [SBMP]: “Wallace Kerrigan and R. D. Armstrong of the Flying A Company, made the trip to Santa Cruz Island yesterday and secured moving pictures of the transportation of the sheep. Photographs were taken illustrating the loading process, also views at the wharf when the sheep left the ship. The steamer Carmel made two round trips yesterday, moving nearly 4,000 sheep from the island to the mainland. It will make as many trips today. According to Kerrigan and Armstrong, they did not get sea sick, although everybody else did, including a fox terrier. It was observed, however, that both ate very heartily shortly after coming ashore.”


July 21, 1912 [SBMP]: “After making five trips across the channel with cargoes of sheep, the steamer Carmel completed its work for the present, after having landed 8031 head. There are still several thousand head of sheep to be transferred from the island, but it may be some weeks before a further roundup is complete.”


July 21, 1912 [SBMP]: “Forty carloads of Santa Cruz Island sheep will be moved out of Santa Barbara today for Kansas City, Mo. via Denver. Five carloads go to California points.”


July 23, 1912 [SBMP]: “Board of Equalization finally raises assessment of Santa Cruz Island to $233,000... The personal property assessment was raised, Mr. Caire being able to convince the board that reports of 50,000 sheep on the island should have been 19,000.”


July 23, 1912 [SBMP]: “Mrs. W. P. Whitmore made a trip to Santa Cruz Island Thursday, returning Friday. She accompanied Mrs. H. Dunn of Elko, Nevada, wife of one of the buyers of the sheep which are being removed to the mainland.”


August 25, 1912 [SBMP]: “Beginning Wednesday, several thousand sheep from Santa Cruz Island will be landed here, a steam schooner being engaged for the purpose.”


August 28, 1912 [SBMP]: “The first consignment of 4000 sheep from Santa Cruz Island is expected here today.”


August 31, 1912 [SBMP]: “The S.S. Thomas with about 400 sheep on board arrived at 7 o’clock last night from Santa Cruz Island, and the unloading of the cargo was accomplished by moonlight, and with more or less difficulty. The Thomas will make two more trips, probably today, with sheep.”


September 1, 1912 [SBMP]: “Mr. and Mrs. R. H. Dunn, who have been here for the past three months, leave this evening for the north. Mr. Dunn will go to Oregon, and his wife will tarry to San Francisco. Mr. Dunn was the buyer of sheep from Santa Cruz Island, and will return again the first of October to purchase more sheep. During their stay in Santa Barbara, Mr. and Mrs. Dunn were the recipients of much social attention.”


September 6, 1912 [OC]: “A large steam schooner will be in port today with sheep from Santa Cruz Island.”


February 14, 1913 [SBMP]: “Feed never so good on islands as now. Captain George E. Nidever says Santa Cruz Island sheep are already in clover. Captain George E. Nidever, master of the power schooner Santa Cruz, arriving yesterday from the south side of the channel, reports that in his life-long experience he has never seen feed in such good condition and the season so generally promising as it is this time. There has been about one inch more rain on Santa Cruz Island than on the mainland; and it has fallen in such a gentle manner that it is of more value than twice the amount of precipitation as it comes in certain winters. The grass is already several inches high. Notwithstanding last years heavy shipments, there are still about 30,000 sheep on the island.”


June 20, 1913 [SBMP]: “Sheep scare on Santa Cruz Island. Caire family troubles are ended and property remains intact. Reports from Santa Cruz Island state that the spring shearing has revealed the fact that there are comparatively few sheep remaining on the island. It was commonly reported a year ago that the island was stocked with about 50,000 sheep. Less than 20,000 were sold during the round-up last year, and now only between 5,000 and 6,000 sheep can be accounted for by the shearers. It is believed that the deep canyons of the west end afford the best hiding places for hundreds of sheep that have become so wild that it is impossible to corral them. Threatened litigation between the Caire heirs is said now to have been adjusted and the family will retain control, one disgruntled member of the company having been brought out. Improvements contemplated include the fencing off the west end so that future sheep-raising operators will not be affected by the losses that have marked the past. A. J. Caire and family are expected here within a few days to go to the island to spend the summer in the attractive bungalows constructed for them two years ago.”


June 21, 1913 [SBMP]: “Spring shearing. Reports from Santa Cruz Island state that the spring shearing has revealed the fact that there are comparatively few sheep remaining on the island…”


June 24, 1913 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived yesterday from the island with a cargo of sheep for local markets.”


September 7, 1913 [SBMP]: “Actors on cruise have experience at Santa Cruz Island... In the evening it was found that they were short of provision, but Mr. Morrison solved the problem by shooting one of the wild sheep that abound on the island, and that evening a barbecue was held which was novel and interesting...”


April 24, 1914 [SBMP]: “Superintendent Revel came over from Prisoners’ Harbor in the Otter yesterday morning accompanied by his foreman of vaqueros to gather up a force of sheep shearers for the semi-annual wool clip on the island, in which operations will commence next Monday. About 25 or 30 men will be taken over by the Otter tomorrow for this work.”


May 27, 1914 [SBDNI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz came in yesterday afternoon from Santa Cruz Island with 205 sheep for the Gehl Packing Company. The sheep are in fine condition, indicating an abundance of feed on the island.”


June 10, 1914 [SBDNI]: “That there is rich pasturage on Santa Cruz Island was proved today when the steamer Santa Cruz put in here with 229 fat sheep for the F. N. Gehl Packing Company. The sheep are in the height of good condition. The crew report the feed better on the islands than for many years.”


June 24, 1914 [SBMP]: “Island magnate comes for annual summer vacation. F. F. Caire interestingly discusses sheep and wine industry... Since the clearing off of the sheep, except those of the better grades, there are now about 10,000 of these animals on the island, and they are all close to thoroughbred quality. ‘No better mutton is produced in California than that raised on the island,’ Mr. Caire asserted, ‘and the reason for it is because of the good feed and free range the sheep get. The sheep raisers of Nevada, who ship so much mutton into this state, acknowledge they cannot raise so good a quality as the Santa Cruz product because they have not so good a quality of grass on their ranges and because their sheep are more closely herded and kept in pens so much.’…He alluded bitterly to sheep that have been stolen, or worse still, that had been shot in the mere wanton sport…”


June 24, 1914 [SBDNI]: The Caire family, owners of Santa Cruz Island, have come from San Francisco for the summer’s stay on the island. F. F. Caire reports that there are now about 10,000 sheep on the island.”


June 30, 1914 [SBDNI]: “Fifty rams from the northern part of the state were taken to Santa Cruz Island today for the Caire estate. They made the trip aboard the schooner Santa Cruz. They were to be turned loose on the island to bring up the standard of the sheep being raised there.”


November 14, 1914 [SCICo]: “Mr. W. D. Baker, Hesperia, Cal. Dear Sir: We are in receipt of your inquiry relative to sheep shearing and in reply would state that our shearing season opens about the first of April and lasts about six weeks. While our sheep are a little wild they are fairly free from wrinkles and folds and there should be no reason why you shouldn't be able to maintain your average. We would like to have you get in touch with us again about the first of March, when we can better tell you the date of shearing, etc. Respectfully yours, The Santa Cruz Island Co. Supt.”


December 28, 1914 [SBDNI]: “Following the theft of two five-gallon demi-johns of wine and a box of cartridges from the fishing boat Eagle, of the Larco Fish Company, late Saturday night, and several other recent attempts at theft, also the killing by unknown parties of several sheep for food on Santa Cruz Island, rumors are in circulation here today that a mysterious band of pirates, using a powerboat, have established headquarters at Friars’ Harbor, Santa Cruz Island, and are using the island as a rendezvous from which to carry on their nefarious trade. The rumors come from various reliable sources, and people in touch with the movement of vessels in and out from ports in this vicinity. The pirates are said to be youths, and to have started their practical career in the last week, using a powerboat either rented or stolen from ship owners in San Pedro or Long Beach. The theft of the wine and cartridges from the fishing boat Eagle Saturday night has served to concentrate attention on the depredations of the alleged pirates, and the fact that a government official has been investigating the rumors for the last several days lends strength to the belief that important developments will soon be made. Friars’ Harbor is an inaccessible spot except by boat. It is several miles from the Santa Cruz Island Company’s wharf and offices, so that the sheep which roam the island could be killed for food without the company finding it out for some time.”


March 27, 1915 [SBMP]: “Shearers to island. Unless deterred by unfavorable weather, the power schooner Santa Cruz will take a force over to Prisoners' Harbor today or tomorrow to get things ready for sheep shearing on the Caire ranch, this work to begin within a week or ten days.”


March 27, 1915 [SBDNI]: “Annual sheep shearing on the Caire ranch will begin within a week or 10 days. The Santa Cruz Island schooner is taking over supplies and employees to the island to prepare for the shearing.”


April 20, 1915 [SBMP]: “Sheep shearing at Santa Cruz Island will figure to the extent of about a hundred feet in the ninth chapter of The Diamond from the Sky, and this will be photographed today...”


April 20, 1915 [SBMP]: “Shearers to Island. The Santa Cruz sailed for Prisoners’ Harbor yesterday morning with Superintendent Revello and 25 sheep shearers that he had collected for the annual sheep searing on the Caire ranch. There are between 30,000 and 40,000 sheep to handle, and the job is expected to take about 60 days.”


April 20, 1915 [SBDNI]: “Sheep shearing is on full blast at Santa Cruz Island. A gang of 25 shearers are at work on the Caire ranch at Prisoners’ Harbor, where nearly 40,000 sheep have to be sheared. The task is expected to require 60 days to accomplish.”


May 6, 1915 [SBMP]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz came over from Prisoners’ Harbor yesterday with a load of fat sheep for the Gehl Packing Company. Several attempts to land were made, but the water was too rough, and Captain Olivari concluded to wait for smoother water to discharge his cargo.”


May 6, 1915 [SBDN]: “Scrambling along, climbing over every ditch and sand pile along the road, instead of following the center of the street, nearly 100 sheep from Santa Cruz were unloaded from the Caire Ranch Company’s boat, Santa Cruz, this morning and driven to Gehl Packing Company’s stockyards on the west side. The sheep, gray from the dust and range of the island, were brought over yesterday, but could not be unloaded at Stearn’s Wharf because of the high tide and heavy swell at that time. Five cowboys were required to drive the sheep. Two went in front, and the prospective mutton padded along behind, making a skidding noise like big non-skid auto tires as their small hoofs skipped along the street.”


May 7, 1915 [SBMP]: “Island boat leaves. The power schooner Santa Cruz, which brought a load of sheep over from Prisoners’ Harbor last Wednesday, and was unable to land on account of rough water, discharged her cargo yesterday and returned to the island with supplies for the Caire ranch.”


May 9, 1915 [SBMP]: “Arthur J. Caire of San Francisco, manager of the Caire estate, is a guest at the Raffour House on a visit of inspection of Santa Cruz Island, one of the princely possessions of his family. Mr. Caire will go to the island tomorrow and will probably remain there for ten days or two weeks. He reports that the affairs of the island are in satisfactory condition. Sheep shearing, which has been in progress for three weeks, will take as much longer before the finish. The wet weather has interfered somewhat with the gathering of the sheep, but it is thought that the trouble is now ended. The clip is very good, and the grass on the range is reported excellent and plentiful...”


May 10, 1915 [SBDNI]: “For the purpose of inspecting the estate property on Santa Cruz Island, Arthur J. Caire, manager of the Caire estate, is passing this week at the island, looking over the big ranch which is one of the Caire family’s large realty holdings in California. Mr. Caire said sheep shearing will continue for three weeks, wet weather having delayed it...”


May 24, 1915 [SBDNI]: “Sheep shearing at the Caire ranch, Santa Cruz Island, will be finished this week. A crew of half a hundred men has been working for the last month or six weeks at the big job of shearing the many thousand sheep on the island. The task will be finished late today or tomorrow, it is expected.”


May 25, 1915 [SBMP]: “Fat sheep received. The power schooner Santa Cruz returned to Prisoners’ Harbor yesterday, after delivering 122 head of fat sheep to the F. N. Gehl Packing Company.”


June 18, 1915 [SBMP]: “Sheep from the island. The power schooner Santa Cruz came over from Prisoners’ Harbor yesterday afternoon with a load of fat sheep for the California Market.”


December 1, 1915 [SBMP]: “The power schooner Santa Clara [Cruz?] will arrive from Prisoners Harbor today with a load of wool to add to a load brought over last Monday for shipment to San Francisco by the steamer George W. Elder. There are 140 bags in the lot, all told, weighing on the average 200 pounds to the bag.”


December 9, 1915 [SBMP]: “The North Pacific steamer Roanoke came in from the south yesterday morning and sailed at 10 o’clock for San Francisco with 500 boxes of lemons, sixteen tons of wool from Santa Cruz Island and various articles of merchandise shipment.”


March 2, 1916 [SBMP]: “A. J. Caire of San Francisco, head of the Caire Estate Company, owner of Santa Cruz Island, came over from Prisoners' Harbor last Tuesday night and left for Los Angeles yesterday, expecting to go from there direct to San Francisco. Before leaving for the south, Mr. Caire stated that things on the island were looking as well as he had ever seen them. There is a very great abundance of grass on the ranges, and all livestock is in the most flourishing condition. The main products of the island are in the line of wool, wine, and cattle, and in all of these Mr. Caire looks for the best season known in years.”


April 1, 1916 [SBMP]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz is on this side of the channel, and today she will sail for Prisoners' Harbor with a force of men to get ready for the shearing on the Caire ranch... It is reported that there are 10,000 sheep rounded up already on this ranch, with several thousand more to be brought in. The shearing will be done at half a dozen different locations on the island, and the work will cover a month. The wool this season is said to be cleaner than usual, and the fleeces exceptionally heavy, owing to the excellent grass on the range, facts that, in connection with the heavily increased prices brought about by the war demands, help augment the joy of the wool men.”


April 4, 1916 [SBMP]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz left for Prisoners' Harbor Sunday with 25 sheep shearers for the spring shearing on the Caire Ranch. There was a large crowd of the friends of the shearers at the wharf to see the boys start.”


May 6, 1916 [SBDN]: “Thieves steal thousands of Santa Cruz Island sheep. Activity of sheep and cattle thieves on Santa Cruz Island has developed a very serious problem, which the Caire Company is seeking to solve. Profits are taken from sheep raising by these thefts. Thousands of sheep are being stolen during the year. Such is the report which U. Ravello, superintendent the island, brings to Santa Barbara… Superintendent Revel was working on this problem when called to the colors, and had to hurriedly leave for Italy. He was naturalized two years ago, but deemed it a moral duty to respond to the call, otherwise he would have remained to put in force a means of capturing the sheep and cattle thieves.”


May 11, 1916 [LAT]: “That thousands of head of sheep are being stolen yearly from Santa Cruz Island by gasoline-boat pirates, is the report brought here by U. Revello, superintendent of the island, which is owned by the Caire estate. The owners are now planning a launch patrol in an effort to capture the thieves. It is claimed by Revello that the launches hail from San Pedro and other southern points. The sheep graze along the slopes of the island. They are easily shot from launches, roll to the beach and the carcasses can be quickly secured without danger of detection. The ranch patrols have caught one boat loaded with the carcasses of sixteen sheep and two beeves. Sheriff Nat Stewart today began plans to take a hand in breaking up the thefts.”


May 14, 1916 [SBMP]: “Good island mutton. Yesterday morning the power schooner Santa Cruz came over from Prisoners' Harbor with 200 fat sheep for local butchers.”


May 10, 1916 [SBDNI]: “The Santa Cruz Island company’s launch today brought over a cargo of sheep and cattle for local markets.”


May 12, 1916 [OC]: “Motorboat pirates steal sheep. Another form of criminal work by the use of gasoline engines came to light when the Caire company of Santa Cruz Island discovered that their sheep were being shot from high power gasoline launches and the carcasses taken to the large cities on the coast for sale. Private detectives are searching Los Angeles to discover the place where the animals have been marketed. They are endeavoring to find the accomplice or ‘fence’ used by a band of combination pirates, cattle rustlers and sheep stealers who have been scientifically preying upon the great cattle and sheep ranches on the Channel Islands. Using swift gasoline launches and high-powered rifles this band has been preying on the big ranch companies of the islands, Santa Cruz in particular, with the result that the heads of the company have issued orders for unremitting war against the looters. Months ago the superintendent of the ranches established on several of the islands noticed that serious and inexplicable losses were occurring among their cattle and sheep. But it was not until two weeks ago than an answer was found to the puzzle. One of the launches belonging to the Caire company… suddenly came across a high-powered launch, manned by four roughly dressed and armed men, heading south. The company’s boat passed as close as possible and the crew were able to see that the strange launch was filled with carcasses of dead sheep. Chase was started, but the strange launch soon outdistanced its pursuer. This remarkable discovery galvanized the officials of the cattle company into action. A string of patrol boats was organized, and the coastline of the island dotted with private detectives and guards. Three days passed and another pirate ship was almost captured. The plan followed by the pirates is to cruise along the coastlines of the islands. Immediately upon sighting cattle or sheep grazing along the slopes of the coast they commence shooting with high-powered rifles. The carcasses roll or are dragged down to the waterline and are loaded into the launches. The cleaning is done while speeding away to safety. According to a statement given out by U. Revello, superintendent of the Santa Cruz Island ranch, his company already has suffered a monetary loss that will eat up the profits of the year.”


July 29, 1916 [SBMP]: “Captain Olivari of the power schooner Santa Cruz, who came over from Prisoners’ Harbor last Thursday with 40 tons of wool from the Caire ranges, will return this morning with a load of supplies for the various departments of the great island ranch...”


July 29, 1916 [SBDN]: “One hundred thousand gallons of wine is the expected output from the great vineyards on Santa Cruz Island this year, according to Captain Olivari, master of the island power schooner. The captain has brought forty tons of wool from the island and is taking back a cargo of supplies...”


November 7, 1916 [SCICo]: “Cagnazzi reports that a ewe was slaughtered at Smugglers and taken away. We are losing sheep all the time but have been unable to identify anyone. If we can't get assistance from the County we will have to take the law into our own hands. The Schooner crew could undoubtedly identify some of the members, but as young Olivari put it, "we don't like to say anything."


November 14, 1916 [SCICo]: “Mr. W. D. Baker, Hesperia, Cal. We are in receipt of your inquiry relative to sheep shearing and in reply would state that our shearing season opens about the first of April and lasts about six weeks. Respectfully yours, The Santa Cruz Island Co. Supt.”


November 14, 1916 [SCICo]: “Rams are apparently badly needed all over the island. We gathered the sheep in the Portrero Nord [Norte] and while we didn't count them individually we estimated them in groups of 2400 with only 11 rams. We didn't get all the sheep that were supposed to be in this Potrero as the fence is broken between the Sur for the greater part of its length. At Scorpion there are but 14 rams and no coludos. We got but 4 coludos from the Portrero Nord and 17 old ewes without teeth.”


November 21, 1916 [SCICo]: “The schooner left for Santa Barbara on November 18th at 8:50 A.M. with Mr. Troup with 9 steers weighing 8960#, 18 sheep and 1 calf weighing 468# and returned to the Island on November 20th at 5:00 P.M.”


November 29, 1916 [SCICo]: “We castrated and docked six young lambs from the Potrero Norte and held out for the butcher 27 male lambs that had escaped castration in the spring. If these don’t pick up in flesh very shortly we will make wethers of them, although they are a little large. Mauri reports that there are between 600 and 700 lambs in the Sauces to be castrated or docked and as soon as he gets his corral fences repaired we will attend to them, when we can perhaps give you more definite information. The coludos have had more or less free access to the Potrero. Regards the Potrero Norte, from the condition of the sheep it would seem advisable, if possible, to exclude all animals from this Potrero for 2 years in order to give the pasturage a chance to recuperate.”


December 19, 1916 [SCICo]: “We have gathered about 400 sheep from the Sur and put them in the Vineyard, and there are some fine lambs and wethers in the bunch. We are endeavoring to bring Mr. Troup over this trip to get them… Any excess of coludos can be marketed in Santa Barbara and the ewes can be sheared on the spot. We have found that the sheep are fond of salt and we should have no difficulty in trapping them all over the Island.”


December 31, 1916 [SCICo]: “Owing to the stormy weather Mr. Troup did not come over. We don't know how many sheep he will take, but we have about 150 lambs and wethers — all in fine shape.”


January 1, 1917 [Oregon Daily Journal]: “Launch Reported Lost is Safe. Santa Monica, Cal., Jan. 1.—After being given up for lost, the launch Kaste, with a crew of four men, is back in port today. Alexis Budinoff, captain, reported that the Kaste was driven ashore on one of the uninhabited Santa Cruz islands and that for two days the men had nothing to eat but two wild sheep.”


January 9, 1917 [SCICo]: “The schooner left for Santa Barbara on January 5th at 7:45 A.M. with Mr. Gehl and 81 head of sheep, and returned to the Island on January 7th at 3:00 P.M.”


January 25, 1917 [SBMP]: “The powerboat Santa Cruz came over from the islands yesterday noon with ninety head of fat sheep for the F. N. Gehl Packing Company.”


March 9, 1917 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz brought 250 lambs from Santa Cruz Island for the local market yesterday.”


May 2, 1917 [SBMP]: “Special sale of Santa Cruz Island milk lambs all this week. St. Charles and Eastern markets. Mint for sauce gratis...”


August 22, 1917 [SBDN]: “A big effort is being made to stop the stealing of cattle and sheep on Santa Cruz Island, and to put in jail the men who have been indulging in the practice. Today an announcement is made in The Daily News of a reward of two hundred dollars for any information that will lead to the arrest and conviction of any person caught stealing sheep or cattle from the island, made by the Santa Cruz Island Company of San Francisco. For some time there has been much complaint by the owners of the flocks and herds on the island over the loss of many head of cattle and sheep through the actions of persons who visit the islands in small boats and shoot the cattle and sheep as they graze on the steep sides of the bluffs facing the ocean. After being killed in this manner, the carcasses roll down the sides of the slope into the water, and are taken aboard by the thieves and carried to some place where they are either eaten or sold to butchers who maintain silence regarding the manner in which they get this supply of fresh meat. The Santa Barbara county officials will be asked to cooperate with government officially in an effort to capture the thieves and put an end to the thievery.”


August 29, 1917 [SBDN]: “$200 reward. The above amount will be paid for information leading to the arrest and conviction of parties stealing cattle and sheep from Santa Cruz Island. The Santa Cruz Island Company. 573 Market Street, San Francisco, California.”


November 17, 1917 [SBMP]: “Captain Ira Eaton came over from Prisoners’ Harbor in the Sea Wolf yesterday morning and returned to the same island port in the afternoon with mail and supplies for the Caire ranch. The Sea Wolf is handling the transportation matters from the ranch named during the absence of Caire’s power schooner, Santa Cruz, while the latter craft is undergoing an overhauling at San Pedro.”


December 7, 1917 [SBMP]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz, engaged in the traffic of the Caire ranch on Santa Cruz Island, with her home port at Prisoners’ Harbor, is again in commission after a complete overhauling at San Pedro, a process that requires 43 days. Captain Olivari, her skipper, states that the boat is now in better shape than ever before. She brought to the mainland last Wednesday a load of fat sheep for a local butcher, and will return to the island today with a load of supplies for various stations on the ranch.”


December 20, 1917 [SBMP]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz, which brought a load of fat sheep to the mainland last Tuesday evening for Gehl markets, returned to Prisoners’ Harbor yesterday morning with a load of supplies for the Caire ranch.”


December 20, 1917 [SBDN]: “The schooner Santa Cruz has just brought a big load of fine sheep for the F. N. Gehl Packing Company. The island sheep and cattle are said to be in splendid condition, not having experienced the pasturage famine which prevails over the big ranges on the mainland.”


April 5, 1918 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz came in yesterday and left later in the day for the island with several sheep shearers.”


July 13, 1918 [SBMP]: “’There will be no change in the management policy of Santa Cruz Island,’ says Arthur Caire of San Francisco, who is visiting in this city. ‘The island will be run as it has been for the last 20 years, purely as an industrial enterprise. With the exception of Captain Ira K. Eaton, no boating or camping privileges have been granted, as the management wishes to confine the island to the raising of cattle, sheep and to the wine industry,’ Caire declared...”


March 20, 1919 [SBMP]: “Striking fishermen from San Pedro touched here yesterday on their way to Santa Cruz Island, where they intend living the simple life until the south shall have been settled. Practically all the fishermen at Los Angeles harbor have gone on strike. They refuse to sell their fish at the prices fixed each evening by the State Fish Exchange. Several hundred fishing boats are tied up at San Pedro. As practically all fishermen own their own boats, it is said there is no way to compel them to continue their fishing and marketing operations. Many of them plan to go to Santa Cruz Island and remain there during the strike. It is understood there are plenty of sheep on Santa Cruz Island, an abundance of fish, and conveniences, so the striking fishermen figure they can take their boats there and live comfortably while they wait and trust to time to win the strike…”


May 30, 1919 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived yesterday morning with a cargo of 400 sheep from the island, wind to the heavy ground swells, she was all day unloading.”


June 12, 1919 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz tied up at the pier yesterday at 1 o’clock, with 126 sheep on board from Scorpion Harbor, Santa Cruz Island, for the Gehl Packing Company. The packing company had ordered twice that number, but the crew of the schooner stated that the heavy swells prevented them from transporting by small boats more sheep than they had on board. There is no wharf at Scorpion Harbor. They also reported the channel waters to be very rough all the way over. Gehl expressed himself yesterday as being under the impression that the price of lambs in the near future would soar still higher than the present $9 a head mark, due partly to the fact that the season is drawing to a close.”


June 9, 1919 [SBDNI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived in port Thursday night with a cargo of island mutton for the market. Members of the crew state that commercial fishing in theisland waters is very successful and that many smacks from San Pedro and other southern ports are arriving daily.”


November 21, 1919 [SBMP]: “Shortage of rain has caused the pasturage of Santa Cruz Island to become scarce and the 100,000 head of sheep that depend on the vegetation for their existence will soon suffer, it is said, unless precipitation hastens. The steamer Santa Cruz left yesterday morning with 50 tons of hay to use should the lack of food for the animals become critical.”


1919 [SCICo]: “Spring shearing, April, May & June, 1919. Total sheep shorn 13,177. Lambs 5,651. Grand total 18,828.”


[1922 Symmes Report]: “Eagles and ravens are responsible for a loss in sheep, particularly very young lambs.”


June 17, 1922 [SBMP]: “Another big load of sheep is expected to be brought over from Santa Cruz Island today, a cargo of 238 having been landed yesterday for the Gehl Packing Company. A third load will leave the island next week and shipments of cattle will then commence. Later rains have made a plentiful supply of fodder and cattle and sheep are reported in excellent condition.”


February 8, 1923 [SBMP]: “A corral is being constructed on Stearn’s Wharf in order to handle the sheep brought over each year from Santa Cruz Island on the Sea Wolf for market purposes, according to Captain Ira Eaton. Captain Eaton’s boat is now in San Pedro, repairs having not yet been finished. The boat is being lengthened 11 feet and painted throughout.”


February 18, 1923 [SBMP]: “Referees will start island partition March 1. Legal obstacles put aside and party is ready to enforce court order. Resort plan hinted. Santa Cruz Island used as Mexican penal colony before U.S. took it over... Some 50,000 sheep roam the hills and an occasional wild boar is found...”


1928: The Santa Cruz Island Company had their corrals for handling sheep at the southwest corner of the present Ambassador grounds. A fence ran around that corner, forming a single corral, and there was a shack near where Bath Street meets Cabrillo Boulevard which was used for shearing sheep and for a storage place. On June 6, 1900 a deed was filed from the SCICO to Edward R. Spaulding. [BAE 44th annual report. Burton Mound by J. P. Harrington., (56; 62)]


July 17, 1929 [SBMP]: “A flock of 300 sheep for Santa Barbara and Los Angeles butchers was brought into Santa Barbara harbor yesterday by the schooner Santa Cruz from Santa Cruz Island.”


October 13, 1937 [SBNP]: “First of 10,000 head of sheep shipped to island. Fifty-one hundred head of sheep, half of a shipment of more than 10,000 head were being taken to the Santa Cruz Island ranch of E. L. Stanton yesterday aboard the schooner Santa Cruz and the larger Vaquero. The sheep, which made up 25 carloads, were purchased in Arizona and brought here by rail, being corralled temporarily on property at Punta Gordo Street and the railroad tracks. The first of the flock was driven from the corrals to the wharf this morning, creating a picturesque sight in the slanting light of early morning, as they were herded along the highway by two expert sheep dogs of the island, Spot and Shep. Well versed in their task, the two dogs exhibited their skill in knowing just where to take a nip, or run in and bark to keep the flock moving smoothly in the right direction. Difficulty in loading the sheep was experienced yesterday morning when heavy ground swells made it necessary to raise the chute well above the deck of the boats, forcing the sheep to jump several feet onto baled hay piled on the deck. The balance of the 10,000 head are expected to arrive here today or tomorrow and will be removed to the island as rapidly as the two boats can take them across the channel.”


February 27, 1938 [SBNP]: “Sheep flocks renowned for high quality. Though recent years have seen development of Santa Cruz Island wool to a high standard of quality assuring it a steady market demand, the Channel Islands sheep industry now is of considerable more importance romantically than it is commercially. Santa Cruz Island, principal member of the Channel Islands group, was stocked with cattle and sheep a century ago, and as many as 40,000 to 50,000 sheep roamed the island in the early days. Scores of men, riders and shearers, were brought from the mainland when the sheep were rounded up for shearing. Only about 12,000 head of sheep were produced on the island during 1937 with a total revenue of less than $100,000, according to estimates made by Eugene Kellogg, County Agricultural Commissioner...”


1939: “...By 1937, the bands of sheep were cut down to 12,000, and are now [1939] being built up again with introduction of superior stock. With a great deal of work, a small quantity of wool has been produced which last year won a cup as the finest out of Southern California.” [O’Neil, Owen H. History of Santa Barbara County 1930 p. 367]


December 11, 1942 [E. L. Stanton letter]: “...Our portion of this island has been run as a ranch for over 100 years, primarily as a sheep ranch, but since our acquisition we are endeavoring to change to cattle. The process is a slow one as many of the sheep have gone wild and they must be cleared out. It also has been necessary to build trails and roads and arrange for proper water for the cattle. There is an abundance of water well distributed over the island...”


March 4, 1943 [SBNP]: “Sheep shearing plans are getting under way for the spring season, and Santa Cruz Island reports indicate that not only would this year’s clip be substantial, but also, despite manpower shortages in some industries, there would be a sufficient force of shearers available to handle the island wool harvest. Overall price for sheep shearing to the wool grower this season will be 30 cents per head, according to prices just agreed to by growers and union members in California. This was said to be slightly higher than last year. The government is in the market to buy all the wool. Shearers said an effort is being made to obtain an agreement on a minimum price the shearer may be paid, for the reason that a heavy crop and threat of carry-over might, even with the government being the buyer, cause a price slump that could catch the shearer in a squeeze between too much wool and too little demand.”


May 9, 1943 [SBNP]: “Sheep on Santa Cruz Island are steadily losing weight. No there is nothing wrong with them, they are the friskiest, sleekest bunch of sheep the island has ever boasted, and nimble, too, for even the old rams can vault a high fence in a way that would be the envy of the best pole vaulter that ever was. The fact is in connection with the loss of weight this is shearing season on the island, and with wool prices at an all time high, Edwin L. Stanton, island owner, promises to clean up a pretty penny. But the island is short-handed, having been hard hit by the manpower famine, so that shearing is not proceeding with the speed of other seasons. The wool, though, was said to be of an extra fine grade, a long-staple variety, as cotton growers would say, that having an added softness is much in demand in these war days…”


November, 1944 [VCY/25]: “E. L. Stanton, Long Beach oil man who owns 54,000 acres on Santa Cruz Island, announced that some 40,000 sheep on the island will be killed off and replaced with cattle.”


1955 [Corridas made and sheep caught on Santa Cruz Island, SCICO ms, CQS]: “3,692 sheep shipped to market.”


1956 [Corridas made and sheep caught on Santa Cruz Island, SCICO ms, CQS]: “10,027 sheep caught 1956. 13,719 total.”


1957 [Corridas made and sheep caught on Santa Cruz Island, SCICO ms, CQS]: “4,312 sheep caught 1957. 18,031 total.”


1958 [Corridas made and sheep caught on Santa Cruz Island, SCICO ms, CQS]: “1,415 sheep caught 1958. 19,446 total.”


1959 [Corridas made and sheep caught on Santa Cruz Island, SCICO ms, CQS]: “1,699 sheep caught 1959. 21,145 total.”


1960 [Corridas made and sheep caught on Santa Cruz Island, SCICO ms, CQS]: “4,340 sheep caught 1960. 25,485 total.”


1961 [Corridas made and sheep caught on Santa Cruz Island, SCICO ms, CQS]: “2,339 sheep caught 1961. 27,824 total.”


1962 [Corridas made and sheep caught on Santa Cruz Island, SCICO ms, CQS]: “126 sheep caught 1962. 27,950 total.”


September 2, 1984 [Lompoc Record]: “Club will hunt, remove Santa Cruz Island sheep. Santa Barbara—An agreement has been reached to stop the Nature Conservancy efforts to eradicate sheep on at least one third of Santa Cruz Island and instead allowing a club to hunt and take the sheep off the island in increasing numbers. The agreement is to date only verbal and with slightly differing versions. Court proceedings against the Nature Conservancy have been dropped—for the time being. A preliminary injunction hearing had been scheduled in Superior Court in Santa Barbara on Friday. The injunction, sought by the California Wildlife Federation, would have halted the Conservancy's three-year-old program which aims to completely destroy the sheep population on the island in the Santa Barbara Channel. The Conservancy began the program in an effort to protect sensitive, native vegetation from the root-eating sheep and the possible, subsequent erosion of the land. Under the terms of the agreement, the Santa Cruz Island Club would increase its take of the sheep through its sport hunting operation, said both Bob McKay of the Wildlife Federation and Bob Hansen, the Conservancy's Santa Cruz Island program director. McKay said the agreement stipulated that the Conservancy would halt its eradication program until April, 1985 and the club would reduce the population of sheep by "an additional 5,000 animals" in the meantime. Hansen said he did not know of a specific time frame or date, but referred to the club's "hunting season" as ending in spring, perhaps in April. Hansen said the Conservancy does intend to go in and "get the rest of the sheep in the areas where the Conservancy has done ground hunting. He said there may only be a handful of sheep left in those areas, which are fenced and cover about two-thirds of the island. "Eventually the Conservancy would like to see a "sheep-free island," Hansen said, adding it plans to re-evaluate the situation in spring after the hunting season. McKay said representatives of the three groups, including himself and Hansen, met last Saturday and flew over the island. There were no attorneys present. "In the area we were most concerned with, the archery hunting areas, the sheep were completely eradicated," said McKay. He charged that the Conservancy had destroyed a hunting recreation area that was "the very best in the United States." The Conservancy disagreed. The areas cleared of sheep were "not suitable for hunting," said Hansen. The Conservancy began its eradication efforts in 1981. It has been criticized for its methods—shooting the sheep and leaving them to rot on the ground. Hansen estimated that 15,000 sheep have been killed. At least 10,000, perhaps 15,000 remain he said.”


November 21, 1996 [VCS]: “Wild-and-Woolly War shapes over sheep. Santa Cruz Island: Animal-rights groups outraged over possible slaughter of 3,000. Outraged by the possible slaughter of 3,000 Santa Cruz Island sheep, animal-rights groups are launching a campaign to save the feral flock. “The phone calls have been coming in,” said Kathy Jenks, director of the county Animal Regulation Department. “We're going to try to put together a proposal. No one wants to see them shot and left to rot.” Farm Sanctuary, a national nonprofit organization, and the Ventura County Humane Society have also pledged their support to save the animals, which will no longer be welcomed on the island after Feb. 10. At that time, Channel Islands National Park will become sole owner of the eastern tip — about 10 percent of the island. It owns 75 percent of the 6,5000 acres. Private landowner Francis Gherini owns the rest. The sheep have roamed the island since the 1800s. But park officials say they are overgrazing the largest of the eight Channel Islands and destroying native vegetation. According to the park's management plan, the sheep will have to go. Jaret Owens, who leases the property from Gherini and has organized bow and rifle hunts for the past 12 years, said there is no cost-effective way to transport the animals off the island. Short of an extension from the park service to allow hunters time to kill them for meat, he said, the sheep would have to be shot and left to rot. The animal-rights groups want to make sure they come off the island alive. “This is a human-caused problem,” said Lorri Bauston, president of Farm Sanctuary. “These animals should not be punished. They are the victims.” Bauston, who runs a sanctuary in Orland in Northern California, said she is checking into quarantine issues for relocation of the sheep, which have evolved into a unique breed. ”If we were talking about 3,000 dogs, this would never be considered,” she said. ”These animals feel pain too.” To execute a rescue, the groups would then need to organize transportation off the island, provide veterinary services and find temporary and permanent homes on the mainland. They plan to appeal to the public for assistance. ”It's going to take a massive coordination effort,” Bauston said. Their first task: getting consent from the sheep's owner. Park officials say that might not be easy because ownership is in question. Gherini says they are his. He also asserts that under the terms of the sale, it is the park's responsibility to relocate the sheep from the island. On Wednesday, he said he was drafting a letter demanding the park do so. But acting park Superintendent Tim Setnicka said nothing will be decided until ownership is established. Still, he and the other parties involved say they are willing to listen to any proposal from the animal-rights groups. With 1,000 lambs due this month, the animal activists say they won't stand for their slaughter. ”You'd have every animal rights organization barricading themselves around the island if it came to that,” Jenks said.”


1999: The last of the feral sheep were removed from Santa Cruz Island by the National Park Service in August, 1999.   Subscript text

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