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Other explorers followed the Cabrillo expedition, including Pedro de Unameno who opened the Acapulco-Manila trade route between the Philippines and Mexico in 1565, allowing Spain to realize Columbus' dream of a new trade route with the Indies. The Manila galleon trade lasted until 1815 (Schurz,1939; Keistman, 1964; Hole and Heizer, 1973). Another expedition led by Sebastian Vizcaino in 1602 produced fairly accurate charts of the coast and harbors of Southern and Central California. The development by Spain of the Manila galleons in 1565, which transported Chinese porcelain, silk, ivory, spices, and other exotic goods from Asia to Spanish settlements in Mexico, resulted in the inclusion of the west coast into global trade (BOEM, 2013:188). The Manila galleons sailed annually from the Philippines bound for Acapulco. The sailing masters steered the galleons as near to 30 degrees north latitude as possible, often having to travel further north to find favorable winds. After the long trip across the Pacific, the ships turned south upon seeing the first indications of land and thus avoiding the uncharted hazards of the California coast (MMS, 1987). If all went well, the first land seen by the sailors would be the tip of the Baja peninsula. The ship then sailed to Acapulco. Many galleons never made it to safe harbor in Acapulco. Some of these included

  • Capitana (unknown location, circa 1600);
  • Nuestro de Senora Aguda (Catalina Island, circa 1641);
  • Francisco Xavier (Columbia River, Oregon, circa 1707)

Galleons also fell prey to pirates such as Sir Francis Drake and Thomas Cavendish (Santa Ana, off the tip of Baja, 1587), and George Compton (San Sebastian, aground on Catalina Island, 1754) (Schurz,1939; Bancroft, 1886; Meighan and Heizer, 1952).

When Spain finally colonized California, all Spanish ships sailing along the California coast including the Manila galleons, were required to stop at Monterey. Schurz (1939) states that over 30 Manila galleons were lost over the 250 years of trade. A few were wrecked on the westward passage and others shortly after leaving Manila. At least a dozen remain unaccounted for. During the following period of Spanish rule, George Vancouver, an Englishman, explored much of the Pacific coast between 1791 and 1795, which was the last documented exploration of coastal California by ship.

[Manila Galleons]

San Pedro Santa Catalina Island 1598
Santa Marta Santa Catalina Island 1528
Nuestra Señora de Auyda [west of Santa Catalina Island] 1641
San Sebastian Santa Catalina Island 1754