Difference between revisions of "Wine"

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'''October 16, 1930 [SBMP]:''' “With 180 tons of grapes already unloaded in Santa Barbara from the Caire Ranch, the schooner ''Santa Cruz'' this morning will head for Santa Cruz Island to take on its seventh and final grape cargo of the year. The 30 tons of grapes to be brought here on the return trip will make a total of approximately 210 tons for the season, said by Captain Ira Eaton of the ''Santa Cruz'', to be one of the largest annual shipments ever taken from the Caire Ranch.”
 
'''October 16, 1930 [SBMP]:''' “With 180 tons of grapes already unloaded in Santa Barbara from the Caire Ranch, the schooner ''Santa Cruz'' this morning will head for Santa Cruz Island to take on its seventh and final grape cargo of the year. The 30 tons of grapes to be brought here on the return trip will make a total of approximately 210 tons for the season, said by Captain Ira Eaton of the ''Santa Cruz'', to be one of the largest annual shipments ever taken from the Caire Ranch.”
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'''December 11, 1942 [E. L. Stanton letter]:''' “...At one time the Island boated a winery which we have since seen fit to dismantle and there were about 300 acres of vineyard and many hundreds of acres were tilled. We farm only enough acreage in oats and barley to have feed for the horses and to fill the barns to take care of the dry season for we feel this operation should be for livestock alone rather than to diversify, as we realize we have a shipping problem and livestock can walk on and off the boat thereby holding the transportation problem at a minimum. Our Port of Entry, at the present time, is Santa Barbara where there are facilities for handling livestock. Port Hueneme, which is on the coast much nearer to Los Angeles, was available to us before the war. The Navy Department has taken over this port for the duration, which will revert back after the war is over. Port Hueneme is much better for us at the water route as the same in miles but better sailing, and is 40 miles closer to market in Los Angeles...”
  
  

Latest revision as of 21:55, 23 March 2020

Santa Cruz Island Wine Depot, Nardi Hotel, Santa Barbara
Winery, Santa Cruz Island
Santa Cruz Island Company Zinfandel
Santa Cruz Island Company Chablis
Winery, Santa Cruz Island,
c. 1910 Photo by P. V. Reyes
Vinyard east of the Main Ranch,
c. 1910
Hauling wine, SCRI
Italian Pine & Winery, Santa Cruz Island.
March 1932
Winery, Santa Cruz Island
1937
Moon over Wineries

Vineyards were planted on Santa Cruz Island in the 1880s, under the direction of Justinian Caire, in a variety of locations including the Scorpion Ranch, however the majority of plantings occurred in the Central Valley to the east of the Main Ranch. The different parts of the ranch where the vineyards lay were given their own district names: Africano, American, Asiatic, Barley, Burgundy, Church, Mission, and New World. These districts lay in the immediate neighborhood of the two large brick winery buildings, the crushing cellar and the fermenting cellar. The island vineyards prospered with the advantage that they escaped the phylloxera blight which did not cross the water barrier between the mainland and the island. After Prohibition and the 1937 sale of the island by the Caires to Edwin L. Stanton, the focus of island operations shifted to sheep and then cattle, and the vineyards were removed. Today only a handful of relict vines serve as a reminder of the wine making days on Santa Cruz Island.

Wine production took place on Santa Cruz Island from the late 19th century until Prohibition (1919-1934) ended wine production. Two large island-made brick winery buildings were constructed in the Central Valley, where the vineyard areas were divided into districts with such names as Africano, Americano, Barley, Church, Mataro, New World, and Old Asiatic. A variety of vine stock was grown: the reds including Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Petit Sirah, Malbec, Cantal Mataro, Hock and Zinfandel; the whites including Muscat Frontignon, Chablis and Reisling. The reds were often sold as generic “Burgundy.”

Chasselas, Grenache were produced under the direction of Justinian Caire. The first grape slips were planted on the island in 1884, imported from Caire’s native France. Isolated from the mainland, Phylloxera free grape stock was easily maintained. Wine was shipped in bulk aboard the Company schooner Santa Cruz to mainland markets, including San Francisco and Los Angeles. By 1895 there were more than 86,000 gallons of wine maturing in the fermenting cellar.

After Justinian Caire’s death in 1897, the wine business was carried on by his two sons, Arthur and Frederic. From the wine production records, it is known that there was always a great deal more red wine than white wine made. The proportion was never less than three to one, and sometimes much higher. Zinfandel was the leading red wine, usually two-thirds of the entire quantity of red wine produced. The highest wine production was reached in 1910 when 83,000 gallons of wine were produced. In 1912 almost 160,000 gallons of wine were on hand, 90% of it red. The last vintage before Prohibition (1918) produced 63,000 gallons of wine. Although Prohibition stopped the production of wine, grapes continued to be shipped to the mainland and sold throughout local markets. Basement wine production in Santa Barbara was commonplace, particularly among the Italian community which provided much of the island’s seasonal labor. Grape sales eventually declined however, and by the mid 1930s the endeavor proved unprofitable. Not long after the island’s change of ownership to Edwin L. Stanton in 1937, the vines were removed. Today furrow lines from the former vineyards can still be seen on the landscape. No bottle of island wine is known to exist.



  • Piquette

December 12, 1916 [SCICo]: “Do we have to label and stamp each bottle and barrel of piquette that leaves the cellar or do we stamp and label the barrel containing the wine from which the piquette is made? Can we legally dilute the wine in the cellar or must it be done elsewhere?”


December 19, 1916 [SCICo]: “Is it all right to use the corrugated shed adjoining the Cellar for the piquette?”


January 24, 1917 [SCICo]: “No real piquette was made. We ordered 1000 Gal. made and canceled it at the last minute as from what we could gather from the newspapers it looked as though we might have to pay tax on water.”


» Pinney, Thomas The Wine of Santa Cruz Island, Santa Cruz Island Foundation, 1994.



In the News~

December 6, 1878 [SBDP]: “The schooner Star of Freedom sailed for San Pedro this morning with 106 casks of wine consigned to Los Angeles. The shipment is made by Grodona and will probably be distilled there, an industry that might be made to pay in Santa Barbara.”


July 20, 1894 [SBDI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz came over from the island yesterday with a cargo consisting of several casks of wine, the product of the island vineyard.”


August 7, 1894 [SBDI]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz arrived yesterday from Santa Cruz Island with five barrels of wine.”


September 26, 1894 [SBDI]: “The steamer Bonita was expected to stop at Santa Cruz Island today on her way north, to take on a cargo of wool and several barrels of wine.”


December 12, 1894 [SBDI]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz arrived in the city yesterday afternoon with a small consignment of wine.”


February 5, 1895 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island Company is about to introduce into the Santa Barbara market two kinds of wine that will delight all lovers of Zinfandel and Burgundy. The wine grown and bottled on Santa Cruz Island is unsurpassed in general excellence. This is comparatively an infant industry, but bids fare to become an important one, as the company will depend solely on the quality of its production for recognition. That success will follow the venture cannot be doubted.”


March 21, 1896 [LAT/SP]: “Vessel movements. March 17, gasoline schooner Santa Cruz, Captain James G. Prescott, from Santa Cruz Island with 2663 gallons of wine.”


June 30, 1896 [LAT/LB]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, Captain Prescott, anchored off the pier Sunday morning for an hour, and as no one came ashore a Times reporter rowed out to her, where he was courteously received by Captain Prescott. The vessel had on board a cargo of wine which she had brought down from Santa Cruz Island, consigned to a Los Angeles liquor house, but the boat could not get dockage at San Pedro, so she was simply making a pleasure trip around the bay...”


July 28, 1896 [SBDI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz came in today from the island of the same name with a cargo of wine.”


May 4, 1898 [LAT/SP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, Captain Maggiolo, arrived Monday from Santa Cruz Island with a cargo of wine.”


October 4, 1899 [LAT]: “The gasoline yacht Santa Cruz arrived here yesterday with sixty barrels of wine.”


October 6, 1899 [SBMP]: “The gasoline yacht Santa Cruz arrived here yesterday from Santa Cruz Island with sixty barrels of wine.”


November 14, 1899 [LAH]: “Shipping news. The arrivals since the first of the month were: ... schooner Santa Cruz, Captain Maggiolo, Santa Cruz [Island], 5000 gallons of wine for K. E. Meyer, Los Angeles.”


November 18, 1899 [LAT/SP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, which was reported as overdue at Santa Barbara, is safe at this port. The little vessel sailed from here last week for Santa Cruz Island, and got a cargo of wine. She returned from that island, and arrived here Thursday evening. It appears that by some misunderstanding, she was expected to put into Santa Barbara, but did not do so.”


December 12, 1899 [SBMP]: “Arrivals since December 1 were ... schooner Santa Cruz, Captain Maggiolo from Santa Cruz Island, with 46 barrels of wine for K. E. Meyer of Los Angeles.”


June 4, 1900 [LAT/VC]: “The schooner Santa Cruz brought in a cargo of wine from Santa Cruz Island.”


September 6, 1900 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, Captain Maggiolo, sails today for Santa Cruz Island for a cargo of wine which will be shipped to inland markets from San Pedro.”


September 6, 1900 [LAT/SB]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, Captain Maggiolo, sails for a cargo of wine, which will be discharged for inland shipment at San Pedro.”


September 11, 1900 [LAT/SP]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz, Captain E. Maggiolo, arrived from Santa Cruz Island with a cargo of 6745 gallons of wine consigned to A. B. Roth of Los Angeles.”


September 22, 1900 [LAH]: “The arrivals since September 1 are: ... schooner Santa Cruz, Captain Maggiolo, from Santa Cruz Island, with 6745 gallons of wine for Roth Company.”


March 14, 1901 [LAT/SP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, Captain Maggiolo, came into this port Saturday from Santa Cruz Island with 4684 gallons of wine.”


June 16, 1901 [LAT/VC]: “The schooner Santa Cruz discharged Thursday a second cargo of wine at this port. The wine comes from the Santa Cruz Island.”


July 27, 1901 [SBDI: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived in port this morning from Santa Cruz Island with a cargo of wine and miscellaneous products.”


August 15, 1901 [LAT/SB]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz arrived last evening from San Pedro, where she had taken a cargo of wine from the islands. Captain Maggiolo reports that he made the trip down in fine weather and time, but the return was arduous. Off Point Mugu he encountered heavy head seas, into which his little vessel backed until she ran out of gasoline. He then set sail and worked his way up the coast against the wind, reaching Ventura, where he laid in a new supply of gasoline. The Santa Cruz left for Santa Cruz Island this morning with provisions for the ranch.”


September 27, 1901 [SBMP]: “Captain Maggiolo of the schooner Santa Cruz states that the grape picking season has commenced on Santa Cruz Island. The wine output of the island forms a feature of its annual income.”


October 9, 1901 [SBDN]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz arrived yesterday afternoon from Santa Cruz Island. Among the passengers were two Italians who have labored in the vineyards continuously for five years. Each of them had accumulated enough money to return to Italy and land there with about $1000. The men on the island receive 75 cents a day and board, the fare consisting of mutton 365 days a year. As soon as the swarthy toilers and their fortunes reached port they took bee-line for a downtown restaurant and proceeded to eat everything in sight—except mutton.”


October 10, 1901 [SBMP]: “Captain Maggiolo of the schooner Santa Cruz states that the grape picking season has commenced on Santa Cruz Island. The wine output of the island forms a feature of its annual income.”


December 6, 1901 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner arrived yesterday morning from San Pedro where she had discharged a cargo of wine.”


August 16, 1902 [LAT/SB]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island yesterday afternoon with a quantity of wine for local and outside dealers.”


February 19, 1903 [SBI]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz came in from the islands today, bringing forty barrels of wine for the local trade.”


March 2, 1903 [SBI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island today, bringing a small cargo of wine and other island products. She is now unloading at Stearn’s Wharf and will sail as soon as a quantity of supplies can be put on board.”


August 12, 1903 [LAT]: “Santa Cruz Island off Santa Barbra was visited Saturday by Milo M. Potter… Under the present owners a lobster and fish canning plant is operated there, 50,000 head of sheep roam the hills and valleys, and a large acreage is planted to vineyards, alfalfa and barley. In the wine vaults of the island there are at present 40,000 gallons of wine made last year…”


November 11, 1903 [SBI]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz came over from the island last night with a load of fine Bartlett pears and other fruit for the San Francisco market, and several barrels of wine for the local trade. The fruit was carefully wrapped in tissue paper and neatly packed. It presented an appearance calculated to surprise people who have the idea that nothing but grass and goats can be raised on Santa Cruz Island.”


December 29, 1903 [SBI]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz came into port last evening for the purpose of having her machinery overhauled. As soon as this work is done she will return to the island and take aboard a cargo of wine for San Pedro.”


February 20, 1904 [LAT/SP]: “On the waterfront. Port San Pedro, Los Angeles. Arrived. Friday February 19. Schooner Santa Cruz, Captain Maggiolo, from Santa Cruz Island with cargo of wine. Sailed. Schooner Santa Cruz, Captain Maggiolo, for Santa Cruz Island.”


June 21, 1904 [LAH]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz has gone on the Iveson ways and is undergoing repairs. The engine will be overhauled, the rigging renewed and the vessel painted. The Santa Cruz is used in carrying wine from Santa Cruz Island to the mainland.”


August 18, 1904 [SBMP]: “The vintage season begins in about two weeks, and the island company expects to manufacture upwards of 100,000 gallons of wine from this year's crop of grapes.”


August 23, 1904 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner came in yesterday with a load of wine, the product of the island. On its return trip it took over some passengers and supplies for the islands.”


December 4, 1904 [SBMP]: “The steamer Santa Cruz is in from the islands with a large cargo of over twenty barrels of wine. The wine is from the large vineyards on the island, and is pressed out at the island winery.”


March 18, 1905 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island boat arrived in charge of Captain Prentiss from Santa Cruz Island yesterday afternoon and discharged a cargo of wine.”


May 29, 1905 [SBMP]: “Sheep shearers return. The schooner Santa Cruz, Captain James Prescott, came in from Prisoners’ Harbor at 1 o’clock yesterday afternoon and discharged a crew of 20 sheep shearers, who have been employed on the island for several weeks. The boat also brought over 120 sheep for Sherman’s meat markets, and unloaded several barrels of wine for the local trade.”


January 4, 1906 [SBMP]: “The steam schooner Santa Cruz arrived in port yesterday from Santa Cruz Island with 42 barrels of wine, amounting to 2310 gallons. Much wine is produced on the island. The average wine output of the island is about 150,000 gallons, but the last crop was injured by damp weather and the output will be much less.”


January 5, 1906 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner which has just discharged a cargo of native wine will sail for Ventura this morning to take a load of empty wine barrels to Santa Cruz Island.”


January 25, 1906 [SBMP]: “The steam schooner Santa Cruz is in port with another cargo of native wine which is grown and pressed on Santa Cruz Island.”


May 14, 1906 [SBI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island shortly before noon today for supplies, bringing a small quantity of wine and several head of sheep for local dealers...”


May 29, 1906 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, Captain James Prescott, came in from Prisoners' Harbor... and unloaded several barrels of wine for the local trade.”


June 10, 1906 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner came in port yesterday from Prisoners' Harbor in charge of Captain James Prescott. She carried 140 sheep for William [? Charles] Sherman's market, and a cargo of wine for the local trade.”


July 17, 1906 [SBMP]: “The steam schooner Santa Cruz arrived in port yesterday with 25 puncheons of wine that held 4400 gallons, which were unloaded at Stern's Wharf. The wine is consigned to San Francisco markets, and will go north on the next steamer. It is white wine of high quality and it commands a good price in San Francisco.”


July 21, 1906 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner is expected in port this morning with a cargo of native wine and live sheep. Wine and sheep are being brought over as fast as they can be loaded at Prisoners Harbor. The wine is sent north to San Francisco and the sheep are delivered to William Ealand of this city.”


July 24, 1906 [SBI]: “The Santa Cruz Island Company, which is owned by the estate of the late Justinian Caire, has now in the big warehouses on Santa Cruz Island, over 100,000 gallons of fine wines. These wines are being aged and will probably not be put on the market for some time to come. Some of it has been in the warehouse for sixteen years, while the newest has been in the big tanks for over two years. For the past two years the vineyards have not produced the usual good crop of grapes for wine and the industry has been temporarily discontinued. The vines have been greatly neglected and it is not known whether or not the owners will again revive the big industry that has made the island famous. Since the death of Mr. Caire, about three years ago, the heirs have been so occupied with their business affairs in San Francisco that they have not been able to give the close attention to the business that their father gave during his life.”


July 25, 1906 [SBI]: “The Santa Cruz left last night for Santa Cruz Island after discharging her consignment of 80,000 gallons of liquor [wine] and taking on a cargo of supplies that were brought down from San Francisco by the Santa Rosa.”


July 28, 1906 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island schooner came over from Prisoners' Harbor yesterday morning and was in port by 4 o'clock with a cargo of wine and sheep. The shipments of wine and sheep continue to come in from Santa Cruz Island. The wine is shipped to San Francisco.”


August 3, 1906 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz came over from Santa Cruz Island yesterday afternoon and discharged a cargo of sheep at Stearn’s Wharf. She also carried some wine for San Francisco markets.”


August 29, 1906 [SBI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, which arrived from Santa Cruz Island yesterday with a cargo of sheep for the Ealand Packing Company, was preparing to return to Prisoners’ Harbor this afternoon. Today she took on fifty puncheons of 175 gallons capacity each, which had been returned from San Francisco, to which point they had been shipped filled with wine.”


September 4, 1906 [SBI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz is expected to arrive from Santa Cruz Island late this afternoon or tomorrow morning with another cargo of sheep. She will also bring several puncheons of wine from the island warehouse. Supplies for the island camps will be taken to Prisoners’ Harbor on the return trip.”


September 19, 1906 [SBI]: “Captain James G. Prescott of the schooner Santa Cruz arrived in the harbor from Santa Cruz Island last night and today is unloading a cargo of wine. He brought eight and one-half barrels of zinfandel for the local trade and twenty-four puncheons of three-year-old savignon which will be shipped to San Francisco. The grape season, according to Captain Prescott, has not brought a large harvest for the Santa Cruz Island Company. He says the fogs have resulted in dry rot attacking the grapes and the ripening has been imperfect. The company has thirty pickers at work...”


November 23, 1906 [SBMP]: “Island trade in full swing. Cattle shipments — wine, walnuts, almonds and other products being marketed. Trade with the islands is in full swing at the present time, notwithstanding the rough weather… The Santa Cruz Island schooner came in yesterday with a cargo of wine, walnuts and almonds, products of the island ranches, and returned in the afternoon for a cargo of sheep…”


December 15, 1906 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island at an early hour yesterday morning, bringing with her a quantity of wine. As soon as she can take on supplies, the schooner will return to Prisoners’ Harbor. It was the intention of Captain Prescott to return to the mainland early in the week, but the storm rendered it unsafe to attempt the trip across the channel.”


January 2, 1907 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, which sailed for Santa Cruz Island a few days ago with a quantity of supplies, is still on the other side of the channel. It was expected that she would return yesterday with a number of puncheons of wine. She will probably reach the mainland today.”


January 4, 1907 [SBMP]: “The island schooner Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island at an early hour yesterday morning. She brought a quantity of wine for Santa Barbara dealers. She will probably remain here for a couple of days before taking supplies and returning to her home port at Prisoners’ Harbor.”


January 22, 1907 [SBMP]: “The power yacht Vishnu returned from Santa Cruz Island where a party of prominent eastern people were entertained for a day or two... Quava [Cueva] Valdez was inspected and various of the pretty harbors were visited. At Prisoners’ Harbor, the party occupied the ranch house, on the invitation of Mr. Caire. They were also invited by the company to visit the winery.”


April 20, 1907 [SBI]: “The gasoline schooner Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island last evening with 105 barrels of wine for Los Angeles wholesalers.”


May 11, 1907 [SBI]: “The Santa Cruz launch left yesterday for the islands with a cargo of empty wine barrels. This boat recently brought over 105 barrels of wine consigned to Los Angeles.”


May 22, 1907 [SBI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz, which plies between this port and the island, came in this morning with a cargo of wine for San Francisco shipment. It also had aboard a small band of sheep for local butchers.”


August 17, 1907 [SBMP]: “Captain J. G. Prescott, who ever since 1894 has been skipper and chief engineer of the steam schooner Santa Cruz, has severed his connection with the island company owing to the refusal of the Justinian Caire Company to recognize the increased cost of living and the advance in wages necessitated all along the line… The Santa Cruz has been lying on this account at anchor with an idle crew ever since the middle of last month. There are hundreds of head of mutton undelivered, and thousands gallons of wine waiting to be transported to the mainland. The business of the island is at a standstill...”


November, 1907 [C. B. Linton]: “Santa Cruz Island is very mountainous, with wide valleys intervening. There are perhaps 40,000 sheep on the island, a few cattle, immense barley fields and grape vineyards, several ranches, a large winery, and some 100 men employed during the harvesting season...”


May 29, 1908 [SBI]: “Owners of vineyards and wineries on Santa Cruz Island are in good spirits over what promises to be one of the largest grape crop for years, according to the crew of the large power schooner Santa Cruz, which arrived from the island at 10 o’clock this morning. Captain Nidever of the Santa Cruz reports that the grape clusters are large and numerous on every vine, and that every indication points to a record yield. The Santa Cruz brought over several ranch hands and sheep shearers.”


August 18, 1908 [SPDN]: “…Grapes on the island promise a full crop, and one of Mr. [Fred] Caire’s objects in visiting the property is to get the work of wine making underway. ‘Wine is very low this year,’ said Mr. Caire. The prohibition wave has reduced sales materially. What the wine growers want is temperance for moderate drinking of wine is far different from drinking liquors in a saloon.’”


September 16, 1908 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island boat tied up to the wharf yesterday with a cargo of wool and wine. The wine output, however, is somewhat shorter than usual, cool weather having interfered with the ripening of the grapes. So far, the island is almost free of vine disease.”


September 19, 1908 [SBI]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz arrived today with the second cargo to be brought from Santa Cruz Island within a week. On board were 100 bags of wool, with 300 pounds in each bag, and a quantity of wine.”


March 11, 1909 [SBI]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived today from the island with a cargo of wine. Conditions on the island are reported as most harmonious by the captain.”


March 18, 1909 [SBI]: “The gasoline steamer Santa Cruz arrived today from the island with a cargo of wine. Conditions on the island are reported as most harmonious by the captain.”


April 17, 1909 [SBMP]: “The Santa Cruz Island power schooner discharged 33 barrels of wine yesterday. The schooner will go back to the island today, taking ten extra men to work in the vineyards.”


July 18, 1909 [SBMP]: “Within the last few weeks vast quantities of wine have been shipped from Santa Cruz Island to San Francisco and Los Angeles. The wine is the product of the famous Santa Cruz Island Company's vineyards. Large local orders are also registered by A. and L. Miratti, the Raffour House and the Montecito Hotel and Frank Nardi. On Santa Cruz Island where the wine is manufactured, there is a vineyard of several hundred acres, which each year yields sufficient grapes for the manufacture of 40,000 gallons of wine. The wine is stored on the island in large vats ranging in capacity from 3000 to 5000 gallons, and from these vats it is drawn into common barrels for shipment. The wine industry of the island comprises the major portion of the Justinian Caire estate and is now managed by F. F. Caire whose headquarters are in San Francisco. The recent shipments of wine are second only to the shipments made to San Francisco immediately after the earthquake [1906]. During that time, every boat northbound carried thousands of gallons of claret, Zinfandel and red and white “Tipo” to the sufferers. These shipments practically cleaned out the Santa Cruz storehouses, but during the last three years, the red fluid has been collecting until now. The island storehouse contains thousands of gallons of the red and white fluid that is increasing in value every day that it remains in the large vats. Connoisseurs have pronounced the Santa Cruz Island wines the finest on this side of the Atlantic, and the demand throughout the east is increasing each year. Many of the famed Bohemian restaurants of San Francisco and Los Angeles handle the Santa Cruz brand exclusively and are loud in their praise of its excellence.”


August 14, 1909 [SBI]: “Fred F. Caire, of San Francisco, who with other members of the Caire family hold the title to Santa Cruz, largest of the Santa Barbara group of islands, announced today that it may be necessary to establish a patrol along the shores of the island and eject all campers who do not hold permits from the family of the management… Grapes on the island promise a full crop, and one of Mr. Caire’s objects in visiting the property is to get the work of wine making under way. ‘Wine is very low this year,’ said Mr. Caire. ‘The prohibition wave has reduced sales very materially. What the wine growers want is temperance, for moderate drinking of wine is far different from drinking liquors in a saloon.’…”


April 19, 1910 [SBI]: “With the distinction of being the first camping party to visit the islands this season, a jolly party of young society people returned last night after camping out in the open for two days at Prisoners’ Harbor on Santa Cruz Island... A feature in the outing was a visit to the immense wine cellar on the ‘middle’ ranch.”


October 11, 1911 [SBMP]: “The island schooner Santa Cruz came over yesterday with the Caire family and relatives, who immediately left by train for San Francisco. The Santa Cruz also had aboard 100 sheep for Santa Barbara. She sailed again this morning with a crew of twenty men to handle the grape crop on the island and work in the winery.”


November 14, 1911 [SBMP]: “The powerboat Santa Cruz arrived from Santa Cruz Island yesterday with 227 head of sheep for the Gehl Packing Company. On its next trip it is expected that the Santa Cruz will bring twelve barrels of wine. The present capacity of the winery on the island is being taxed. There have so far been only small shipments of wine, so the coming one will be the most important this season. It is said that the crop of the vineyards on the island this year will yield about 120,000 gallons of wine, the greatest in the history of the industry.”


February 19, 1912 [SBI]: “Fifty-one wine puncheons were taken to Santa Cruz Island this morning on the island schooner. These puncheons will hold over two barrels each. They were brought to Santa Barbara Friday on the steamer State of California for the handling of the wine crop on the island this year which is said to be extra large.”


May 31, 1912 [SBMP]: “Santa Cruz Island may become property of church. Interesting rumor offers explanation for sale of livestock.. Wine to the value of $100,000 shipped this week by Caire estate. Movement of sheep will begin soon. Company has steadfastly refused to consider the sale of island domain... Now it is learned that an immense stock of wine on the island is also to be sold. The steamer Curacao called to Prisoners' Harbor this week and took off a consignment of wine valued at $100,000, and this is but a portion of the vintage that the wine cellars of the island contain...”


June 6, 1912 [SBMP]: “The successful outcome of the recent attempt to picture the Santa Cruz Island seal in their native haunts and in the process of capture, has encouraged the Pacific Motion Picture Company to extend their effort, and to secure a general island film, perhaps 3000 feet in length, and including scenery as well as action... Arrangements have been made for the second cruise next week, at which time the camera will be able to catch sheep round-up and shearing in full operation. Wine making will also be illustrated. W. H. Clifford, the president of the company, who is also the scenario writer, will accompany the troop...”


December 11, 1912 [SBMP]: “The freight steamer Coos Bay was reported yesterday northbound, having stopped at Prisoners’ Harbor, Santa Cruz Island on the return voyage from Ventura for a large consignment of wine.”


April 6, 1913 [SBMP]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz left for Prisoners’ Harbor, Santa Cruz Island, yesterday with a quantity of empty puncheons for island wine.”


October 15, 1913 [SBDN]: “The Santa Cruz Island winery is now in full operation, transforming the season’s grape harvest into ruddy wine. It is estimated that the wine output this season will reach 200,000 gallons. The crop of grapes has been unusually heavy, and despite lack of rain on the mainland, agriculture in all its branches has flourished on the island, the grapes this year being especially heavy with nectar.”


December 5, 1913 [SBMP]: “The launch Charm, Captain H. S. Short, arrived yesterday from the islands having been delayed a day or two by rough weather. With the Santa Cruz Island Company’s schooner still stranded at Rincon, the Charm is serving as a carrier for business to the islands and the mainland. Yesterday the launch brought a small cargo of livestock and wine.”


December 6, 1913 [SBDN]: “Thieves stole a cask of wine from the Charm yesterday, planning to dispose of it by the cover of darkness last night, but Captain Short, in whose charge the cask had been shipped from the island to a local consignee, found the cask buried in the sand of the beach. For months, petty thieving has been steadily pursued along the water front, despite all efforts to apprehend the thieves.”


June 24, 1914 [SBMP]: “Island magnate comes for annual summer vacation. F. F. Caire interestingly discusses sheep and wine industry. F. F. Caire, president of the Santa Cruz Island Company, owner of the island named, which is generally conceded to be the most beautiful island on the American side of the Pacific Ocean, is staying at the Raffour House, accompanied by his family… Speaking of the wine industry, a very important factor in the island revenues, Mr. Caire expressed the conviction that the prospect of the California winegrowers had materially brightened since Congress had squelched that feature of the Pomerene Act that was intended to prevent the California makers fortification of their sweet wines by the addition of sugar and alcohol—a process necessary in order to preserve them. The Californians who went to Washington to fight the measure were successful in their efforts, and Congress supported the Californians contention that the proposed legislation would be a sore grievance and an unjust discrimination. And to make things all the better for the winemakers of California and worse for those of the east, any wine in any way manufactured, or artificial — as most of the eastern wine is — must be labeled ‘Imitation Wine’. That regulation will cut a serious figure in the business of the men who make wine that is not wine at all.”


January 1, 1915 [SBDNI]: “Wine enough to fill a good sized reservoir was taken on today at Santa Cruz Island by the steamer Santa Clara, which called there this morning to take on the vinous consignment before coming here en route to San Francisco.The shipment of wine consisted of 60 puncheons. A puncheon is a large cask holding between 300 and 400 gallons, several times the capacity of an ordinary barrel. The wine was made from grapes grown on the island by the Justinian Caire Company, its owners.”


January 2, 1915 [SBMP]: “The steamer Santa Clara left San Pedro at the regular time last Thursday, but sailed directly to Prisoners’ Harbor, Santa Cruz Island, for a shipment of wine for San Francisco, after taking which aboard she came in to this port and left for San Francisco.”


January 18, 1915 [SBMP]: “The powerboat Santa Cruz left for Prisoners Harbor yesterday morning with supplies and empty wine casks for the Caire ranch.”


February 19, 1915 [SBMP]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz came over from Prisoners’ Harbor yesterday morning with a load of wine. She will probably return to the islands today.”


May 9, 1915 [SBMP]: “Arthur J. Caire of San Francisco, manager of the Caire estate, is a guest at the Raffour House on a visit of inspection of Santa Cruz Island, one of the princely possessions of his family… The Company has 200 acres in wine grapes and the vines are in fine condition. The stocks of the wine cellars have been nearly depleted, the last delivery being to the steamer Santa Clara for the San Francisco buyers, one day last week, consisting of 93 puncheons of about 160 gallons each.”


May 10, 1915 [SBDNI]: “For the purpose of inspecting the estate property on Santa Cruz Island, Arthur J. Caire, manager of the Caire estate, is passing this week at the island, looking over the big ranch which is one of the Caire family’s large realty holdings in California. Mr. Caire said sheep shearing will continue for three weeks, wet weather having delayed it. The Santa Cruz Island Company, by which name the Caire ranch is known, has 200 acres of wine grapes under cultivation. The company’s wine cellars are nearly depleted, several large consignments of wine having been sent north recently for San Francisco buyers. The Santa Clara took 93 puncheons, of 100 gallons each, north last week.”


June 7, 1915 [SBDNI]: “Grape vines on the Caire ranch at Santa Cruz Island are to be treated with an application of dry sulphur to kill insect pests. This morning the Santa Cruz, the company’s power schooner, took on board a cargo of supplies, including 15 sacks of sulphur, to be used in killing insect pests on the ranch vineyards.”


June 23, 1915 [SCICo]: “Mr. William Hunt, California Building, Panama Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco, Cal. Dear Sir: We regret very much that we could not comply with your request in regard to providing you with more wine of Santa Cruz Island production. We were hoping that our San Francisco customers would still have some on hand, but they advise us that they have disposed of it all. We are now writing to Santa Cruz Island to see if they could not put up a small quantity for display and consumption. Yours truly, The Santa Cruz Island Company, AJC [Arthur J. Caire].”


October 31, 1915 [SCICo]: “Collector Internal Revenue, Los Angeles, Cal. Dear Sir, We wish to report that during the month of October there were made 15,920 gallons of wine; sold and consumed 599-1/2 gallons, testing less than 14% alcohol. Respectfully yours, Santa Cruz Island Company Superintendent.”


March 2, 1916 [SBMP]: “A. J. Caire of San Francisco, head of the Caire Estate Company, owner of Santa Cruz Island, came over from Prisoners' Harbor last Tuesday night and left for Los Angeles yesterday, expecting to go from there direct to San Francisco. Before leaving for the south, Mr. Caire stated that things on the island were looking as well as he had ever seen them. There is a very great abundance of grass on the ranges, and all livestock is in the most flourishing condition. The main products of the island are in the line of wool, wine, and cattle, and in all of these Mr. Caire looks for the best season known in years.”


July 29, 1916 [SBMP]: “Island yields big wine grape crop. Captain Olivari of the power schooner Santa Cruz, who came over from Prisoners’ Harbor last Thursday with 40 tons of wool from the Caire ranges, will return this morning with a load of supplies for the various departments of the great island ranch. The captain reports a great crop of wine grapes on the island. The harvest will commence in the near future, and the making of the wine will begin about September first. It is the intention of the management to make 100,000 gallons of wine this fall. Mrs. Justinian Caire and her sons, Arthur and Fred, with their families, are at the middle ranch where they generally spend their summers and are having the usual enjoyable experience.”


July 29, 1916 [SBDN]: “One hundred thousand gallons of wine is the expected output from the great vineyards on Santa Cruz Island this year, according to Captain Olivari, master of the island power schooner. The captain has brought forty tons of wool from the island and is taking back a cargo of supplies. The grape crop on the island is ripening fast and winemaking will begin about September 1. The middle ranch house is again serving as the summer home of Mrs. Justinian Caire, her sons Arthur and Fred, and their families.”


October 21, 1916 [SCICo]: “We are ordering some demijohns. We have had to refuse three small orders lately because of the lack of containers.” Report of the Superintendent


October 21, 1916 [SCICo]: “...We are on the 49th tank of red wine. The grapes are coming in very slowly as the bunches are small and far between. We may possibly get one more tank and will probably be through with picking this week. The past two days have been well above 86 degrees and there is a possibility of a third crop next month.” Report of the Superintendent


October 29, 1916 [SCICo]: “At this date, October 29, there are still two tanks in the fermenting room to be run down into the cellar. From the total gallons should be deducted 12,000 gallons of 1914 Zinfandel, giving 62,339 as the total 1916 wine to date. In racking there will be a further reduction as the tanks are not entirely filled, so an estimate of 50,000 gallons will be close to the correct figures. The Mataro and Grenache have practically no color at all, in fact look like water with a little coloring in it.” Report of the Superintendent


October 31, 1916 [SCICo]: “Collector Internal Revenue. Los Angeles, Cal. Dear Sir: We wish to report that during the month of October there were made 15,920 gallons of wine; sold and consumed 699-1/2 gallons, testing less than 14.5 alcohol. Respectfully yours, Santa Cruz Island Co. Supt.”


March 21, 1917 [SBMP]: “Yesterday morning the power schooner Santa Cruz came over from Prisoners’ Harbor with a cargo of wine. She will take back mail and supplies for the island ranches.”


July 24, 1917 [SBMP]: “Wine from island — Yesterday the power schooner Santa Cruz came over from Prisoners’ Harbor with a cargo of wine for the local market.”


September 22, 1917 [SBDN]: “A carload of wheat seed for planting on Santa Cruz Island was loaded on the schooner Santa Cruz this morning and taken across the channel. The schooner also carried a large shipment of empty wine casks. Preparations for a big output of wine from the island vineyards is being made. The schooner also carried over a flock of hens.”


1918 [SCICo]: map by Alonson Swain indicates the following grapes were being grown for the last harvest before Prohibition: Barbara, bordelais, burger, burgundy, cabernet franc, cabernet sauvignon, carignane, Grenache, malbec, mataro, mission, moscato, Riesling, trousseau and zinfandel.


January 16, 1918 [SBMP]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz got in last night with forty barrels of wine from the island vineyards, and left this morning for the island with provisions.”


January 29, 1918 [SBMP]: “The power schooner Santa Cruz came in this morning from Santa Cruz Island with a cargo of wine and other products of the island.”


February 26, 1918 [SBDNI]: “Brings Island Wine. The schooner Santa Cruz Island [sic], Captain Oliveras [sic], arrived from the island this morning with a cargo of wine for Montecito and other patrons. The island has had a heavy storm since Sunday before last, and both crop and stock conditions are looking fine.”


March 2, 1918 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz arrived this morning from the island with a boat load of men called for the draft examinations. She also brought over some wine from the island vineyards.”


July 13, 1918 [SBMP]: “’There will be no change in the management policy of Santa Cruz Island,’ says Arthur Caire of San Francisco, who is visiting in this city. ‘The island will be run as it has been for the last 20 years, purely as an industrial enterprise. With the exception of Captain Ira K. Eaton, no boating or camping privileges have been granted, as the management wishes to confine the island to the raising of cattle, sheep and to the wine industry,’ Caire declared. When asked what would become of the wine industry if the prohibition bill now pending before congress was passed, Caire shrugged his shoulders and said that they would have ‘to take their medicine like everyone else.’ He explained that the grapes were good for the making of wine only; that they could not be used for table or raisins. ‘We hope the bill, if passed, will allow time for the adjustment of affairs,’ he said, ‘but even then it is hard telling what can be done about the proposition.’ The wine producing industry on the island is a larger one. Approximately 70,000 gallons are produced every year. The Caire family is now camping on the island.”


October 25, 1918 [SBMP]: “A full car of wine is being loaded at the Santa Barbara Transfer Co. warehouse, routed to New York. This wine, of the zinfandel variety, was manufactured on Santa Cruz Island and was brought to the mainland by the schooner. All importations of French and Italian wines having been stopped by the war, New York is making heavy demands on the California vintage. The car being prepared for shipment, when fully loaded, will contain 190 barrels of the juice of Santa Cruz Island grapes.”


November 21, 1918 [SBMP]: “Yesterday the launch Santa Cruz discharged a cargo of wine at Stearn’s Wharf and later took on a load of merchandise for the island.”


December 20, 1918 [SBMP]: “With a cargo of wine on board, the schooner Santa Cruz came into port yesterday. Passage across the channel to Santa Cruz was reported as being comparatively smooth.”


January 12, 1919 [SBMP]: “About 60 puncheons of wine remain on Santa Cruz Island. Weekly deliveries to Stearns wharf have reduced the original island output of wine greatly and it is expected by Capt. Oliveri of the schooner Santa Cruz that shipments will continue to arrive at this port for two months or more.”

February 14, 1919 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz unloaded 11 barrels of wine at the wharf yesterday afternoon.”


June 27, 1919 [SBMP]: “The schooner Santa Cruz docked alongside the pier opposite the warehouse yesterday noon. She carried a cargo of wine from Santa Cruz Island.”


October 5, 1919 [SBMP]: “Who bought them grapes? Eight tons of them came over yesterday from the Caire estate on the Channel Islands. They disappeared like a pack of playing cards in the hands of a magician. Some say the grapes will be little raisins. Some say they will soon be jelly. Some say they will be made into wine. Some say there is no authority for that last statement.”


October 31, 1919 [OC]: “Old wineries on Santa Cruz Island to be dismantled. The long established wineries of Santa Cruz Island probably will be dismantled within a few months, and the vats, casks and other equipment sold to South American companies. H. Romera Day, representing Buenos Aires interests, now in the north, has seen A. J. Caire of the Caire family who owns Santa Cruz Island, and has consulted about the purchase of the island winery equipment. To handle the grapes from thousands of acres of vines the island has some of the finest oak vats in the state. Also there is on the island one of the best collections of old hand-made and hand-carved Spanish casks, oval, not round, and with concave heads for added strength. The island’s present store of wine is being shipped to Japan.”


November 4, 1919 [SBMP]: “The long established wineries of Santa Cruz Island, 30 miles off the coast of this city, probably will be dismantled within a few months, and the vats, casks and other equipment sold to South American companies. H. Romera Day, representing Buenos Aires interests, now in the north, has seen A. J. Caire of the Caire family, who own Santa Cruz Island and has consulted about the purchase of the island winery equipment. To handle the grapes from thousands of acres of vines the island has some of the finest oak vats in the state. Also there is on the island one of the best collections of old hand-made and had-carved Spanish casks, oval, not round, and with concave heads for added strength. The island’s present store of wine is being shipped to Japan.”


November 28, 1919 [SBMP]: “The wine industry on Santa Cruz Island is now but a memory. Done are the days of the swashbuckler, the bearded buccaneer, beach combing and idle rovers of the Spanish main. Dreams of yesterday, the customary siesta in sun kissed vales have vanished in the stride of progress and slowly but surely the wineries on the island 30 miles off the coast of this city are being dismantled. There was a time when thousands of acres of vines on the island added materially in furnishing refreshment for Californians as a whole. The equipment there was regarded as the finest in the world. The best oak vats to be found anywhere were used in the manufacture of the wine on Santa Cruz, as there was a rare collection of old hand-made and hand-carved Spanish casks, oval, not round, and with concave heads for added strength. Only shepherds who tends his flocks and the few stragglers who touch at the islands in quest of adventure can be found nowadays, and there is apparently an empty void where once Justinian Caire and his cohorts added to the gayety of nations with their songs, twang of the guitar and sunset and the welcome that was always cordially extended.”


December 31, 1919 [SBDNI]: “Some wine still left on the islands of the Santa Barbara channel is included in 4,500,000 gallons of wine which it is estimated make up the state’s present stock which must be moved out of the state before January 16. Since national prohibition went into effect much wine has been shipped out of the United States from the islands and a deal has been reported for the sale of the winery plant to a South American wine company. After constitutional prohibition becomes effective, exporting of liquors will be unlawful, hence but two weeks remain to remove the wine. It is said that the California Wine Association has 2,000,000 gallons of wine on hand. Internal revenue officers stated yesterday that liquor remaining in the United States after January 16 would not be destroyed, but would be placed in certain locations designated by the government, and would be under strict supervision. Stocks will not become government property, but can only be disposed of in innocuous ways, such as flavoring for drinks containing less than one-half of one percent alcohol.”


October 8, 1922 [LAT]: “Santa Barbara. Harvesting of the Santa Cruz Island grape crop began some weeks ago. The grapes are being brought to Santa Barbara and find ready sale in large quantities for grape juice making. The crop this year will total around 130 tons. Most of the crop consists of Mission wine grapes. Before the prohibition amendment became effective, these grapes were pressed into wine on the island and the vintage was shipped to New York, where there was a large market for the product.”


February 18, 1923 [SBMP]: “Referees will start island partition March 1. Legal obstacles put aside and party is ready to enforce court order. Resort plan hinted. Santa Cruz Island used as Mexican penal colony before U.S. took it over... At one time, Santa Cruz Island produced some of the finest California wines, and a large quantity is now in bonded storage on the island...”


October 15, 1930 [SBMP]: “The grape crop on Santa Cruz Island this year was heavy, according to Captain Ira Eaton. The grapes are practically all harvested.”


October 16, 1930 [SBMP]: “With 180 tons of grapes already unloaded in Santa Barbara from the Caire Ranch, the schooner Santa Cruz this morning will head for Santa Cruz Island to take on its seventh and final grape cargo of the year. The 30 tons of grapes to be brought here on the return trip will make a total of approximately 210 tons for the season, said by Captain Ira Eaton of the Santa Cruz, to be one of the largest annual shipments ever taken from the Caire Ranch.”


December 11, 1942 [E. L. Stanton letter]: “...At one time the Island boated a winery which we have since seen fit to dismantle and there were about 300 acres of vineyard and many hundreds of acres were tilled. We farm only enough acreage in oats and barley to have feed for the horses and to fill the barns to take care of the dry season for we feel this operation should be for livestock alone rather than to diversify, as we realize we have a shipping problem and livestock can walk on and off the boat thereby holding the transportation problem at a minimum. Our Port of Entry, at the present time, is Santa Barbara where there are facilities for handling livestock. Port Hueneme, which is on the coast much nearer to Los Angeles, was available to us before the war. The Navy Department has taken over this port for the duration, which will revert back after the war is over. Port Hueneme is much better for us at the water route as the same in miles but better sailing, and is 40 miles closer to market in Los Angeles...”


May 9, 1943 [SBNP]: “...Island visitors, and they are few because of the war, report that the old-time wine-making industry, which added a picturesque touch to island activities during the days of the former owners, the Caires, has vanished from the picture. The great wine storage vats that formerly held the rich nectar from the island vineyards, finding an almost exclusive market in New York from special buyers because of its rich bouquet, are now used as water reservoirs, with which to hold water for livestock for the exclusive activity on Santa Cruz now, is sheep and cattle raising. These wine vats are now located at various points over the island to save the livestock many miles walking to and from water for water...”

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